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A.M. Costa Rica
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(506) 2223-1327                          Published Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Vol. 13, No. 190                 Email us
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Cascata del Bosco




Bill to punish mopping advances in legislature
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

A bill reported out favorably by a legislative committee Tuesday would give additional rights to employees in an effort to prevent workplace harassment.

The bill defines as harassment restrictions on the autonomy of workers and unjustified pressure by a manager for the completion of assigned tasks.

Also defined as harassment are unjust or negative criticism of performance and assigning jobs that are below or above the employee's abilities. Harassment also would be reducing the workspace allocated to the employee or even failing to assign work normally done by the employee.

As always there is a lot of wiggle room in the broadly drafted bill, but the goal is to prevent what is known as mopping or bullying in the workplace.

The favorable report came from the Comisión Permanente Ordinaria de Asuntos Jurídicos, which would give labor court judges considerable power to remedy what they saw as violations of this law. And even though there is an active labor court case,
the self-described victim would be able to institute a criminal case.

The proposed law, No. 18.140, also prohibits what appears to be eavesdropping on the communication methods used by an employee and any invasion into the individual's private life.

In all, there are 16 specific acts that are forbidden, and employers are responsible for actions by other employees, too.

The measure is rooted in the section of the Costa Rican Constitution that provides for the right to work. The measure also is rooted in the work of  psychologist  Heinz Leymann who wrote extensively on mobbing, a term he coined.

The term covers all sorts of negative activities at work, including rumor, bullying, humiliation and isolation. When confronted with such a complaint, an employer is obligated to set up a three-person investigating committee of employees.

A summary of the legislative actions released Tuesday noted that the bill also would include public employees.


'Biofuels have no benefit at the tailpipe'
New analysis questions basic value of biofuels

By the University of Michigan news service

Policy makers need to rethink the idea of promoting biofuels to protect the climate because the methods used to justify such policies are inherently flawed, according to a University of Michigan energy researcher.

In a new paper published online in the journal Climatic Change, John DeCicco takes on the widespread but scientifically simplistic perception that biofuels such as ethanol are inherently carbon neutral, meaning that the heat-trapping carbon dioxide gas emitted when the fuels are burned is fully balanced by the carbon dioxide uptake that occurs as the plants grow.

That view is misguided because the plants used to make biofuels — including corn, soybeans and sugarcane — are already pulling carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis, said DeCicco, a research professor at the Energy Institute at the University of Michigan.

DeCicco's paper is unique because it methodically deconstructs the life-cycle-analysis approach that forms a basis for current environmental policies promoting biofuels. Instead, he presents a rigorous carbon cycle analysis based on biogeochemical fundamentals to identify conditions under which biofuels might have a climatic benefit. These conditions are much more limited than has been presumed.

"Plants used to make biofuels do not remove any additional carbon dioxide just because they are used to make fuel as opposed to, say, corn flakes," DeCicco said.

DeCicco stressed that research and development are important to create better options for the future. Research and development is especially needed for bio-based or other technologies able to efficiently capture and use more carbon dioxide than is already being captured and stored by natural vegetation. But going beyond research and development and into subsidies, mandates and other programs to prop up biofuels is unwarranted, he said.

DeCicco's direct carbon accounting examines carbon sources and sinks (storage sites, such as forests or crop fields) separately, an approach that lends greater clarity about options for addressing carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuels.

"Biofuels have no benefit at the tailpipe," DeCicco said.

Per unit energy, the carbon dioxide emissions from burning ethanol are just 2 percent lower than those

food or fuel
A.M. Costa Rica archives
Food or fuel: 45 percent of the U.S. corn crop goes to biofuels

from gasoline. Biodiesel yields carbon dioxide emissions about 1 percent greater than those from petroleum diesel.

"If there is any climate benefit to biofuels, it occurs only if harvesting the source crops causes a greater net removal of carbon dioxide from the air than would otherwise have occurred," DeCicco said.

His paper concludes that for now, it makes more sense to enable plants to soak up carbon dioxide through reforestation and to redouble efforts to protect forests, rather than producing and promoting biofuels.

Corn ethanol production of 14 billion gallons supplied 4.4 percent of total U.S. transportation liquid fuel use in 2011. However, even that small share of liquid fuel supply required 45 percent of the U.S. corn crop.

Biofuels are the presumed replacement for the petroleum-based transportation fuels, gasoline and diesel, that dominate liquid fuel use. In the United States, the federal Renewable Fuel Standard mandates a large increase in biofuels use, which has now reached 16 billion gallons a year, mainly ethanol. But DeCicco pointed out that a recent National Academy of Sciences report concluded that the Renewable Fuel Standard may not reduce greenhouse gas emissions at all, once global impacts are counted.

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A.M. Costa Rica's  Second news page
San José, Costa Rica, Wednesday,  Sept. 25, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 190

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Spprts,em's Lodge

Professional Directory
A.M. Costa Rica's professional directory is where business people who wish to reach the English-speaking community may invite responses. If you are interested in being represented here, please contact the editor.


Dentistry

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Real estate agents and services

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Legal services

FULLY BILINGUAL ATTORNEY
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Official English/Spanish translator and interpreter
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President Chinchilla brings
her case to United Nations


By the A.M. Costa Rica staff
with wire service reports

Surrounded by diplomats concerned about the 100,000 killed in Syria, chemical warfare, the weekend mall massacre in Kenya and the threat of a nuclear attack in the Middle East, President Laura
president
President Chinchilla
Chinchilla criticized the constant aggression by the government of Nicaragua against Costa Rica.

She also said that Nicaragua had tricked the International Court of Justice in The Hague.

This was perhaps the defining moment of her presidency, seeking international help.

The government of Nicaragua has offered sections of Costa Rican maritime territory for petroleum exploration, she told the U.N. General Assembly. He
explained how President Daniel Ortega said he wanted to reclaim Guanacaste and that he continues to dredge in the Isla Calero, which is Costa Rica territory.

She called upon the United Nations to continue being an advocate of peace and to protect the system of international rights.

Each year when the U.N. General Assembly begins its meetings, heads of state traditionally give talks about their problems or to praise the progress their country has made.

Costa Rica will be making contact with other diplomats throughout the week to gain support against Nicaragua.

Meanwhile in New York, demonstrators blanketed the park outside the United Nations headquarters Tuesday to raise awareness on issues ranging from the situation in Syria to Iran’s nuclear weapons program.

Some demonstrators just wanted to celebrate. A group of men, for instance, sang the praises of Liberia’s president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.

Others called for action against repressive governments, for support for ethnic minorities in Sri Lanka and religious minorities in China.
 
But two focused on Iran's newly elected President Hassan Rouhani. One wanted him out of office. The other wanted his help.
 
While some protesters used cartoon-like costumes to draw attention, the symbolism behind them was dead serious. Attesting to this was a large hourglass filled with tiny balls resembling blood. It sent the message that time was running out to stop the bloodshed in Syria.

There, to drive that point home was Ian Bassin, campaign director of the human rights group Avaaz.
 
“There will have to be a negotiated solution. And the question is whether that happens before more people die or after," said he.
 
Bassin organized this protest calling on Rouhani to meet with U.S. President Barack Obama to help end the Syrian conflict.

“On behalf of the lives hanging in the balance and more than one million people around the world, we’re calling on President Rouhani and President Obama to sit down and get to a ceasefire before more lives are lost,” said Bassin.
 
Just a few meters away, anti-Rouhani protesters urged world leaders not to trust him. Former New York mayor Rudolph Guiliani reminded the crowd that the Iranian president was a nuclear negotiator about a decade ago.
 
"While Rouhani was negotiating in the past, the Iranian regime was just moving forward with enrichment and with becoming a nuclear power," said Guiliani.
 
Protesters also spotlighted Iran’s human rights abuses. They called on the U.N. General Assembly to hold Iran and its leaders accountable for what they said were crimes they were committing against their own people.


International trumpet expert
will play with youth band


By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Fred Sautter, a 72-year-old trumpet player, will join the 52 members
Fred
                                                          Sautter
Fred Sautter
of the Banda Sinfónica Juvenil Saturday at Teatro Popular Melico Salazar for a seasonal concert.

The Montclair, New Jersey, native, has a career of more than three decades teaching music to students. He has been on the faculty of the University of Oregon and has taught in many countries of the world.

The 7 p.m. concert, of course, will
include pieces appropriate for brass, including the 1911 "Second Suite for Military Band" by British composer  Gustav Holst,

Admission is 3,000 colons.

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Readers should refresh the page and, if necessary, dump the cache of their computer, if this problem persists. Readers in Costa Rica have this problem frequently because the local Internet provider has continual problems.


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San José, Costa Rica, Wednesday,  Sept. 25, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 190
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modular bridge
Consejo Nacional de Vialidad photo
Bailey bridge section is ready to be put into place.
La Paz waterfall bridge going into place but not in service
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Roadway officials want to make sure that the same thing does not happen at the La Paz waterfall that happened on the Circunvalación. They are stabilizing the ground with a new wall to prevent erosion when a temporary bridge is in place.

The plan is to erect another of those bailey bridges across the face of the waterfall. The location is at a much-admired cascade between Vara Blanca and San Miquel de Sarapiquí. It was water from the river that took out the existing bridge more than a week ago.

The Consejo Nacional de Vialidad, the road agency, said that the bridge is expected to be in place by the end of the week. But it will be several weeks more before travel is permitted,

Those in the tourism business north of the waterfall are not happy. The Cámera Nacional de Turismo issued a press release
Tuesday noting that the main highway out of San José provides
access to the northern zone and the various tourism locations.

The waterfall is north of Heredia, and Ruta 126 is often traveled for its natural beauty. However, Ruta 32 is the main highway to the northern zone.

The chamber said that rumors of road problems reduced the number of tourists to Fraijanes, Poasito and Sarapiquí to zero last weekend.

When contractors for the Consjo de Vialidad tackled the collapse of part of the Circunvalación, they quickly erected four bailey bridges. But they failed to take into account the actions of the Río María Aguilar, which undermined the base of the bridges. That is why the four-lane highway remains closed, creating a monumental traffic mess in the metro area.

And that is why workers at the waterfall are reinforcing the ground so that the bridge will stay in place once it is up. The temporary bridge will be 33 meters or about 108 feet.


Security officials find tons of mosquito breeding sites close by
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Police cars when they die go to a patrol vehicle cemetery in La Uruca.

Security ministry officials said that they have gotten rid of this 15-year-old junk pile in order to eliminate breeding places of the mosquito that carries dengue.

There was about 20 tons of metal, bottles, tires and all kinds of other material for recycling.

Officials will do that and donate the proceeds to several charities, they said.

The minister of Gobernación, Policía y Seguridad Pública, Mario Zamora Cordero, said that the cleanup gave much more room for the Departamento de Mantenimiento Vehicular.

The ministry probably will need it because it has received a number of patrol cars from China which are notoriously difficult to keep running.
cop junk
Ministerio of Gobernación, Policía y Seguridad Pública photo
These police cars have seen much better days

Del Rey HOtel

You need to see Costa Rican tourism information HERE!

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Fish Fabulous Costa Rica

A.M. Costa Rica's Fourth News page
San José, Costa Rica, Wednesday,  Sept. 25, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 190
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Older and wiser trumps youth in a test of economic decision making
By the University of California at Riverside news staff

The brains of older people are slowing, but experience more than makes up for the decline, a University of California, Riverside assistant professor of management and several colleagues found when asking the participants a series of financially related questions.

Ye Li, the assistant professor, and Martine Baldassi, Eric J. Johnson and Elke U. Weber, all currently or formerly of Columbia University, outlined the results in a paper, “Complementary Cognitive Capabilities: Economic Decision Making, and Aging,” which was just published in the journal Psychology and Aging.

The study is believed to be the first to measure decision making over the lifespan through the lens of two types of intelligence: fluid and crystallized. Fluid intelligence is the ability to learn and process information. Crystallized intelligence refers to experience and accumulated knowledge.

Past research has found fluid intelligence declines with age, but provides no definitive conclusion as to whether decision-making abilities declines as people age. Li and his colleagues set out to answer that question.

Their work has broad implications. As the average age of the world’s population rises rapidly, understanding how and how well older adults make decisions is crucial because they are faced with an increasing number of important choices related to their retirement finances and health care. Furthermore, as new laws increase the minimum retirement age, people remain professionally active later in life, with older adults holding many key leadership roles.

To conduct their research, Li and his colleagues recruited a group of 336 people — 173 younger (ages 18 to 29) and 163 older (ages 60 to 82) — and
asked them a series of questions that measured economic decision making
traits. They also administered a battery of standard fluid and crystallized intelligence tests.

These traits included temporal discounting (how much people discount future gains and losses), loss aversion (how much the valuation of losses outweigh gains of the same magnitude), financial literacy (understanding financial information and decisions) and debt literacy (understanding debt contracts and interest rates).

They found the older participants performed as well or better than the younger participants in all four decision-making measures. The older group exhibited greater patience in temporal discounting and better financial and debt literacy. The older participants were somewhat less loss averse, but the result did not reach standard levels of significance.

“The findings confirm our hypothesis that experience and acquired knowledge from a lifetime of decision making offset the declining ability to learn new information,” Li said.

The findings also support the fact that older people could be further helped by being provided aids to ease the burden on their decreased fluid intelligence, such as a calculator or advisor, when making significant financial decisions, Li said. On the other hand, younger adults may benefit from more financial education so that they can gain experience with major financial decisions before making them in the real world.

Li and several of his colleagues who co-authored the Psychology and Aging paper are working on a follow-up project that asks adults ranging from 18 to 80 specific questions about decisions such as selecting a health care policy, when to start drawing Social Security and how to pay off multiple credit card balances.

 
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Christ Howard with Max
retiring in Costa Rica,  and who has personally helped over 10,000 people with ALL BUDGETS relocate SUCCESSFULLY over the last 35 years. CUSTOM TAILOR-MADE TOURS are also available for people with special needs or who can’t take one of our fixed-date tours. ALL tours include EXTENSIVE touring and a highly informative SEMINAR by the country’s most renowned EXPERTS in their respective fields. Also visit: Live in Costa Rica to check out our NEW tour prices and specials.  Customer satisfaction 100% guaranteed! MY REFERENCES.

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Howard Spanish cover

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A.M. Costa Rica
Real estate rentals
Real estate rental agents
Real estate for rent
Business
wanted
Real estate wanted

Real estate rental services (paid category)

See our listing of real estate brokers on the for-sale page.

Real estate for rent (paid category)
COMPLETELY and nicely furnished apartments
apartment view
in San José, and one condo in Escazú. Fast Internet, cable TV, hot water. Large American appliances including washer and dryer. Both convenient locations. No pets. $600 per month. Contact: rentnowcr@gmail.com or call 8555-9819.
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prime properties
ATTENTION EXPATS:
 
We have many prime properties available for long-term rentals.
Rohrmoser
Escazú
Santa Ana
 

  rentals.sanjose@gmail.com
8094-10/20/13

Lovely cottage on private coffee farm
One spacious bedroom, one bath, office room/spare room with high speed DSL internet, fully equipped kitchen, phone line,
Sarchi cottage
balcony with beautiful view, especially at night with the far off lights of San José. Farm is gated and guarded, private and peaceful, owner on-site. Sarchi is a quiet small town about 30-40 min from the airport, a perfect base to explore from and also get a
feel for normal, day-to-day Tico life. Rental is $575 per month, 3 months minimum. All utilities included. Shorter stays at $45 per night, 2 nights minimum. $225 per week, and $30 per additional night. Sorry, no pets.  Contact jogya345@yahoo.com or 8308-7732.
8093-10/16/13

house for rent
House for rent on a large property surrounded by fruit trees and garden on a bus line. Fully furnished, complete laundry room, two bedrooms plus extra room for office, security, electric gate, Internet available.  Located in Monte de la Cruz, San Rafael de Heredia. $475 monthly. Call 2267-6306  Or email: bonillaleda@yahoo.com.
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Cute rental house
Beautiful and cozy mountain cottages
in San Rafael de Heredia.
Surrounded by nature. Bus line service. Security.
One or two bedrooms, one or two baths.
$500 or $425, monthly with furniture.
$325 or $250 without furniture. No bills included.
MORE INFO:  lizrutbeth@gmail.com  (506) 8739-0638.
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Tropical Homes of Costa Rica is offering the best selection of vacation homes, condos and long-term rental homes in Playa Flamingo, Playa Potrero and Playa Brasilito on  the Pacific Gold Coast of Guanacaste. A wide selection of private residencies is providing an excellent choice for your stay in this beautiful part 
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of Costa Rica. We are offering homes for every budget and every need. Please visit our Web page at www.tropicalhomesofcostarica.com or contact us at rentals@tropicalhomesofcostarica.com or call at (506) 2654-5442.
8054-2/16/14

Lovely cottage on private coffee farm
One spacious bedroom, one bath, office room/spare room with high speed DSL internet, fully equipped kitchen, phone line,
Sarchi cottage
balcony with beautiful view, especially at night with the far off lights of San José. Farm is gated and guarded, private and peaceful, owner on-site. Sarchi is a quiet small town about 30-40 min from the airport, a perfect base to explore from and also get a
feel for normal, day-to-day Tico life. Rental is $575 per month, 3 months minimum. All utilities included. Shorter stays at $45 per night, 2 nights minimum. $225 per week, and $30 per additional night. Sorry, no pets.  Contact jogya345@yahoo.com or 8308-7732.
8026-7/17/13

Barrio Escalante, totally furnished, 1 BR apartment for single, responsible person. $35 daily, weekly rates. Contact 8385-2542, celigar53@gmail.com.
8018-8/24/13

1 bedroom with private bath. Rooms in large, 3.000 sq ft. historical mansion in heart of Barrio Amón.  Prices starting at $350. for long-term. Smoking ok in common areas. Includes electricity, water, commercial kitchen use, laundry, high-speed internet. 7078-6985. More info HERE!
8006-7/14/13

COMPLETELY and nicely furnished apartments
apartment view
in San José, and one condo in Escazú. Fast Internet, cable TV, hot water. Large American appliances including washer and dryer. Both convenient locations. No pets. $600 per month. Contact: rentnowcr@gmail.com or call 8555-9819.
8024-8/18/13

prime
                                    properties
ATTENTION EXPATS:
 
We have many prime properties available for long-term rentals.
Rohrmoser
Escazú
Santa Ana
 

  rentals.sanjose@gmail.com
8025-8/18/13

ALAJUELA – SERENE LIVING
MONTHLY $800 TO $1,200

Villas Casa Loma has everything you are looking for.  Best vistas, climate, value.  Four unique homes in a secure private compound on a ridge near Alajuela overlooking the entire Central Valley.  Two are available fully furnished and equipped, each a complete home accommodating 4 persons in two bedrooms with ensuite baths.  Pool, rancho, mirador, other features.  Ask about part-month rates.  Call Gerry at (506) 2441-8796 or e-mail at gerrybuilt2000@yahoo.com.  See virtual tour of accommodations HERE!
Get to know the real Costa Rica – you may want to live here someday.
7968-7/17/13

Beautiful Golfito house for rent in Costa Rica: $300/month
Available now and please see the video!
http://youtu.be/7N5BThdct8s
New construction includes some wooden stairs to the main gate and a small pavilion above the house overlooking the village. The distance to Golfito harbor/downtown is 7 kms and you can get there by car, taxi or bus. The sale price is $72,000 which is negotiable and includes the property lot of 26,000 sq, ft, for more houses. The rent is $300/month, which is very reasonable for those who want to live near sea and Panamá in an inexpensive lifestyle. It was so nice to live near Panamá where people can shop for much lower prices including for groceries. Please contact me at berosyyourlife@hotmail.com for more details. Thank you.
7954-6/8/13
7875-4/11/13



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A.M. Costa Rica's
Fifth news page
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San José, Costa Rica, Wednesday,  Sept. 25, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 190
Sports
Calendar
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Lifestyle
Food
About us







Comet ISON moving closer
and amateurs can see it now


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Comet ISON was spotted and photographed by amateur astronomers as the highly-anticipated arrival of the icy space visitor nears.

"I photographed Comet ISON on September 15 using my 4-inch refractor," reports astrophotographer Pete Lawrence of Selsey in the United Kingdom.  "The comet's tail is nicely on view even through this relatively small instrument."

In Aquadilla, Puerto Rico, astronomer Efrain Morales Rivera saw the comet on Sept. 14 "rising above the canopy of the rain forest just minutes before sunrise. I used a 12-inch telescope," he said.

ISON, which will make its closest approach to the sun Nov. 28, has the potential to be a spectacular sight, depending on how it reacts to the solar heating it will receive.

NASA, the U.S. space agency, said that in mid-September the approaching comet was glowing like a star of 14th magnitude. That's dimmer than some forecasters expected.

"Certainly we would love it to be a couple of magnitudes brighter right now," said researcher Karl Battams of the Naval Research Lab in Washington, D.C., "but it's doing just fine. I'd say it's still on course to become a very eye-catching object."

NASA cautions that comets are capable of fizzling at the last minute even after months of promising activity.

However, if ISON survives its brush with solar fire, it could be visible to the naked eye, NASA said.

Based on the latest images, internationally known comet expert John Bortle said "ISON appears likely to survive the inbound leg of its journey all the way to the Sun. It will probably brighten more slowly than all the early hype led the public to believe. Nevertheless, Comet ISON should very briefly become exceptionally bright, at least rivaling the planet Venus in the hours preceding its closest approach to the sun."

After Nov. 28, ISON will emerge from the sun's glare well-positioned for observers in the northern hemisphere. The comet's tail will likely be visible to the naked eye in both the morning and evening sky throughout December.

The last comet that did this sort of thing was Comet Lovejoy, which gave viewers in the Southern Hemisphere a view of the comet’s tail stretching halfway across the sky.


Hepatitis C cocktail  helps
eliminate disease in trial


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

At least 150 million people in the world have a chronic liver disease called hepatitis C, according to the World Health Organization.  Hepatitis C runs the gamut from a mild disease to a deadly one. While there's no vaccine to prevent it, researchers have found a combination of drugs that cures many difficult cases.

Researchers have been looking for ways to cure or prevent hepatitis C infections. Hepatitis C is contagious, and it can cause liver failure, liver cancer and death.

“Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading reason why we have liver transplantation in the United States," said Anthony Fauci from the National Institutes of Health.

Fauci headed a study that focused on patients who lived in poor, urban areas, mostly African-American who already had liver disease. These patients were given a new drug, sofosbuvir, which has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

“Sofosbuvir is an agent that acts directly against the hepatitis C virus itself. It interferes with one of the enzymes that’s important for this virus to replicate itself," Fauci said.

The patients also received rivavirin, an older drug that fights hepatitis C. After receiving both drugs for a period of time, between 50 and 70 percent of the patients were cured. They did not have the hepatitis C virus in their blood.

The treatment excluded interferon, a drug frequently given by injection to combat the disease.

Interferon can cause serious effects that make it difficult to take, but the combination of drugs given in the trial had minimal side effects, and none of the patients dropped out.

Hepatitis C is considered a silent killer because most people don't know they have it until the disease is advanced. Catching it early prevents liver cancer and liver failure, and improves the odds of a cure, which is why Fauci says aggressive screening is as important as finding drugs that are easy to take.

“The idea of getting these people diagnosed and, if they need it, to get them into a treatment regimen is a very important public health imperative," he said.

The study appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association.


Vaccine targets commonality
of seasonal influenza viruses


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Scientists have moved a step closer toward developing a universal vaccine against seasonal influenza, which can cause severe illness and occasionally death.  The concept for the vaccine grew out of a natural experiment during the 2009 global flu pandemic.

The process for developing a protective vaccine against the sometimes deadly viral infection is imperfect at best.  The problem, say experts, is that drug developers are always trying to stay one step ahead of the pathogen, as they attempt to predict which of a number of circulating viral strains is going to emerge as the dominant one that year.
 
Currently, vaccines contain proteins from several strains, designed to produce antibodies to stimulate a protective immune response.  But the virus continuously mutates, so a vaccine cocktail is not effective after one flu season.
 
Ajit Lalvani, the Imperial College of London chairman of infectious diseases says British researchers have drawn the blueprint for a universal vaccine against all varieties of influenza.
 
Instead of stimulating antibody production, Lalvani says the new vaccine would ramp up production of CD8 killer T cells, immune system cells that attack core influenza proteins, which are the same in all strains of the virus.
 
“Such a vaccine would induce T cells that would be able to recognize new viruses that have not even been identified yet.  In other words, future pandemic strains.  In that sense, it’s a universal vaccine.  And it will be different to existing vaccination where currently every year a new vaccine has to be developed, which is why we are always one step behind,” he said.
 
Lalvani and colleagues proved CD8 T cells could be used as the basis of a universal vaccine by recruiting some 350 staff members and students in the autumn of 2009 during the start of the flu pandemic.
 
The participants donated blood samples and were given nasal swabs.  Every three weeks, they answered questions about their symptoms.  If they fell ill and experienced any flu symptoms, they used the nasal swabs and sent them to a laboratory for testing.
 
Researchers found those with the most severe symptoms had the lowest T cell counts, while those who caught the flu, but had very mild or virtually no symptoms had the greatest number of CD 8 cells.
 
Lalvani says this natural experiment provided researchers with the ingredients to make a universal flu vaccine.
 
“Since we know what the components are, we know what T cell needs to be induced, we really have the design of the vaccine in hand.  It’s now a matter of producing it and carrying out clinical trials to confirm safety and effectiveness,” he said.
 
Lalvani predicts that a universal flu vaccine will become available within the next five years. An article on a universal influenza vaccine was published in the journal Nature Medicine.


China's luxury markets
thrive despite crackdown


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

China is cracking down on government excess and corruption. Advertisements for luxury goods are banned, and it’s riskier than ever for officials to flaunt their wealth. But even with the official focus on austerity and China’s slowing economy, Chinese demand for luxury goods continues.

In the rich port city of Shanghai, luxury shops are like convenience stores, there is one on almost every corner.  China is the world’s second largest market for luxury brands.  By 2015, McKinsey and Co. estimates the country will account for more than 20 percent of the global luxury market.

Luxury industry analyst Pablo Mauron said that despite the challenges, he is still upbeat about the future.

Mauron, who is the general manager China of the Digital Luxury Group said that while there are some signals of slowing, overall luxury brands remain confident about China.

“They keep investing massively in China, opening new stores. In Shanghai, we have new malls, new luxury malls opening every month almost,” Mauron said.

After years of breakneck expansion, China’s economic growth is hovering around 7.5 percent.  While that’s not bad and a level many countries would envy, it’s a sharp change in China after years of annual growth around and above 10 percent.

Embarrassed by corruption scandals that have highlighted the privilege of China’s ruling Communist Party elite, the government has banned lavish banquets, gift giving and ostentatious displays of wealth.

Yang Dacai, the former Chinese official who also is known as brother watch, was sentenced to 14 years in prison earlier this month. Yang’s corruption was exposed when a blogger noticed that he frequently wore expensive luxury watches and asked how he could afford the flashy timepieces on a civil servant's salary.

In late August, China announced it was expanding consumption taxes on even more luxury goods.

While these things could spell trouble for high-end retailers, Mauron said companies so far are not worried, and remain focused on the traditional challenges of luxury brands.

“The key challenge, no matter what the context, around some controversy over gifting with corruption or problems, issues with the taxes, I think the main challenge is still the same,” Mauron said. “Which is how to boost the local consumption and how to find some reasons to buy locally when the consumers know it is more expensive.”

Luxury goods are even more expensive in China than overseas, because of high import and consumption taxes. That has led many Chinese to shop abroad in Europe and the United States in search of better deals.

Such savvy shoppers are part of China’s growing affordable luxury sector. Ken Grant, the head of FDKG Insight, said the sector is one that brands are finding new ways to reach.

"Luxury brands are all trying very hard to find new customers, which means they need to innovate in what they do, they need to introduce new products,” said Grant. “Perhaps products that they did not traditionally have, they are expanding their lines and maybe introducing some lower price point products to attract new consumers.”

Demand is also growing for China’s own luxury goods. The wife of Chinese President Xi Jinping has helped boost interest in high-end Chinese fashion by wearing only locally designed brands on her trips overseas.

French luxury and retail group Kering has put its backing behind the jewelry company Qeelin. The brand combines Chinese culture with French craftsmanship. Chinese brand Shang Xia mixes modern design with Chinese culture, and its biggest investor is French luxury brand Hermes.

Without such backing, it is far more difficult for local brands to compete, Grant said. “They need to be around long enough and their challenge is whether they’ve got the stamina to do that or whether the people who invest the money are willing to invest for a long time,” he said.

Many traditional luxury brands took decades to establish their reputation. In a recent survey of the most sought after luxury products in China, only one Chinese brand was among the top 50. That jewelry brand, Chow Tai Fook, was founded in China back in 1929.


Aviation group seeking
U.N. carbon accord


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Airlines Monday urged a U.N. aviation group to back a mandatory global framework to curb airline emissions, saying failure to reach a deal would revive threats of a trade war.
 
The International Air Transport Association, which represents some 200 airlines, said the United Nations' aviation agency could agree on a new system when its 191 states continue their assembly in Montreal this week.
 
The U.N.'s International Civil Aviation Organization, which sets standards for air travel, is under pressure to make headway toward resolving one of the worst aviation disputes in years, pitting the European Union against its trade rivals. The organization meets in full once every three years.
 
Greenhouse gas emissions from commercial flights are growing at a steep rate. The EU in 2011 came up with regulations to charge airlines for carbon emissions on flights to and from Europe over EU airspace, but it has suspended the scheme to allow opponents, led by China and the United States, to agree on a global plan to curb aviation emissions under U.N. auspices. The EU has threatened to put the scheme back into effect if there is no deal.
 
“If the assembly agrees what could be done from 2020, and what should be done in the meantime, I believe governments will work toward implementing that,” said Tony Tyler. He is director general of the International Air Transport Association.
 
Earlier this month, preliminary negotiations led to a breakthrough ahead of the full meeting, but diplomats say some countries, such as India, are still unhappy about the plan which would allow the EU to charge only for its own airspace.
 
China has suspended billions of dollars of orders of Airbus jets to protest the original European scheme.

rain belt
Graphic by Mats Halldin
Red line shows the rain belt in northern summer. Blue is during the winter.

Rain belt migration seen
changing global conditions


By Columbia University’s Earth Observatory news staff

As the planet continues to warm, a northward shift of Earth’s wind and rain belts could make a broad swath of regions drier, including the Middle East, American West and Amazonia, while making monsoon Asia and equatorial Africa wetter, says a new study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The study authors base their prediction on the warming that brought Earth out of the last ice age, some 15,000 years ago. As the North Atlantic Ocean began to churn more vigorously, it melted Arctic sea ice, setting up a temperature contrast with the Southern Hemisphere where sea ice was expanding around Antarctica. The temperature gradient between the poles appears to have pushed the tropical rain belt and mid-latitude jet stream north, redistributing water in two bands around the planet.

Today, with Arctic sea ice again in retreat, and the Northern Hemisphere heating up faster than the south, history could repeat itself. “If the kinds of changes we saw during the deglaciation were to occur today that would have a very big impact,” said the study’s lead author, Wallace Broecker, a climate scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

Marshaling climate data collected from around the world, from tree-rings, polar ice cores, cave formations, and lake and ocean sediments, Broecker and study coauthor, Aaron Putnam, a climate scientist at Lamont-Doherty, hypothesize that the wind and rain belts shifted north from about 14,600 years ago to 12,700 years ago as the northern hemisphere was heating up.

At the southern edge of the tropical rain belt, the great ancient Lake Tauca in the Bolivian Andes nearly dried up at this time while rivers in eastern Brazil slowed to a trickle and rain-fed stalagmites in the same region stopped growing.  In the middle latitudes, the northward advance of the jet stream may have caused Lake Lisan, a precursor to the Dead Sea in Jordan’s Rift Valley, to shrink, along with several prehistoric lakes in the western U.S., including Lake Bonneville in present day Utah.

Meanwhile, a northward shift of the tropical rains recharged the rivers that drain Venezuela’s Cariaco Basin and East Africa’s Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika. Stalagmites in China’s Hulu Cave grew bigger. Evidence for a stronger Asian monsoon during this time also shows up in the Greenland ice cores.

The process worked in reverse from about 1300 to 1850, the study authors hypothesize, as northern Europe transitioned from the relatively warm medieval era to a colder period known as the Little Ice Age.  Ocean circulation slowed, and sea ice in the North Atlantic Ocean expanded, the climate record shows. At the same time, rainfall declined in monsoon Asia, leading to a series of droughts that have been linked to the decline of Cambodia’s ancient Khmer civilization, China’s Ming dynasty and the collapse of kingdoms in present day Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand.

In the southern hemisphere, the reconstruction of glacier extents in New Zealand’s Southern Alps suggests that the mid-latitudes may have been colder during medieval times, supporting the idea of a temperature contrast between the hemispheres that altered rain and wind patterns.

A similar migration of Earth’s wind and rain belts happens each year. During summer, the tropical rain belt and mid-latitude jet stream migrate north as the Northern Hemisphere heats up disproportionately to the south, with more continents to absorb the sun’s energy. As the Northern Hemisphere cools off in winter, the winds and rains revert south.

Sometimes the winds and rains have rearranged themselves for longer periods of time. In the 1970s and 1980s, a southward shift of the tropical rain belt, attributed to air pollution cooling the northern hemisphere, is thought to have brought devastating drought to Africa’s Sahel region. The tropical rain belt has since reverted back, and may be moving north, the study authors say, as suggested by a number of recent droughts, including in Syria, northern China, western U.S., and northeastern Brazil.

Consistent with the study, at least one climate model shows the tropical rain belt moving north as carbon dioxide levels climb and temperatures warm.  “It’s really important to look at the paleo record,” said Dargan Frierson, an atmospheric scientist at University of Washington whose modeling work supports the authors’ hypothesis. “Those changes were huge, just like we’re expecting with global warming.”

The study authors acknowledge that their hypothesis has some holes. In the past, changes in sea ice cover drove the temperature gradient between the two hemispheres while today rapidly rising industrial carbon emissions are responsible. So far, there is also no clear evidence that ocean circulation is increasing in the North Atlantic or that the monsoon rains over Asia are strengthening (though there is speculation that sulfate aerosols produced by burning fossil fuels may be masking this effect).

As air pollution in the Northern Hemisphere declines, temperatures may warm, creating the kind of temperature contrast that could move the winds and rains north again, said Jeff Severinghaus, a climate scientist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography who was not involved in the study.

“Sulfate aerosols will probably get cleaned up in the next few decades because of their effects on acid rain and health,” he said.  “So Broecker and Putnam are probably on solid ground in predicting that northern warming will eventually greatly exceed southern warming.”







Real estate-related services (paid category)

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Real estate brokers and agents (paid category)


Swimming pool at night
A Buyer’s Broker offering the best
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The #1 Authority in Costa Rica Real Estate

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5,000 square meters of land and 175 square-meters of construction. HERE!
Grecia
2,000 square meters of land and 200 square-meters of construction.  HERE!
  Send us your request to our email: info@greciarealestate.com
8068-11/9/13

Real estate for sale (paid category)


sunset view
FREE FULL-DAY TOUR and property viewing – San Ramón! 
Come visit us in San Ramón and not only will we show you some great properties but we’ll also give you a FREE day-long tour of this terrific town with a relocation expert who has lived here for many years. Since 2006, CRC has been the area’s leading creator of socially-responsible communities for foreign retirees/investors and locals. “Easy access” to San Ramón does not mean living many miles outside of town, but less than 2 miles from everything you’ll need. Live near town but in an area that only feels a world away. None of our competitors have built a school, donated a water well and completed numerous projects for the community. A few stunning, direct ocean-view home sites of 1.25 acres to nearly 4 acres from only $55,000 remain in one of San Ramón’s most desirable residential communities. Please visit us at www.crcommunities.com or email us at CRCInformation@gmail.com to request a property showing AND your free full-day tour. Overnight accommodations can be arranged. Limited availability so please contact us today referencing “Free Tour” in your email: CRCInformation@gmail.com
8080-10/6/13

Pacific Estates

Pacific Estates is divided into three distinct sections called Pacific Landings, Pacific Hills and Pacific Acres. Pacific Landings includes unique 2 & 3 bedroom homes incorporating pole house construction, cathedral ceilings, balconies on both the front and back of the house and eco-friendly elements. The homes also include granite counter tops, state-of-the-art stainless steel kitchen appliances, washer & dryer hook ups, internet connectivity and zone controlled A/C. These homes feature 1,290 square feet under A/C space and 1,537 square feet under A/C space with an optional Loft. To learn more about Pacific Estates, schedule a No Obligation Free Virtual Tour today by clicking here!
8087-10/18/13

Samara church and lot
Commercial lot with great visibility in heart of Playa Sámara commercial district. Located alongside town's largest church, bank, hardware store/lumber yard, mini shopping plaza, and Pali (Sámara's largest supermarket). This lot has a large elevated building platform shaded with mature treees. All this makes for many commercial options.  One block from stunning "blue flag" beach. This is a perfect location for a eco/boutique hotel, restaurant/catering, apartments, or condominium. All utilities to this property. Lot size 1,414m2. Price 325K. Email: mwk350@yahoo.com
8082-10/9/13

Nicoya
                                views
Maui, 50 years ago!
One acre with all services located on the Nicoya Peninsula at about 2,400 feet below cloud level with the most intriguing panoramic views to the picturesque gulf, mountains and valleys, as well as sunset over the Pacific. 60,000 USD, axelspecial@gmail.com    Cell 8916-5550.
8061-xxxxx

Five bedroom home
Five bedrooms, three-and-a-half baths plus guest house
Price reduced $100,000 for quick sale. Features include out door BBQ, swimming pool, plus on the beach. The home is completely furnished with U.S. products. Each room is individually air conditioned.  Hot water in bathrooms, kitchen and laundry room.  Fully furnished. Includes TV’s, refrigerator/freezer, dish washer, microwave, electric stove/oven, washer & dryer and many “as seen on TV” appliances.  To see more, go to YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/user/CasaDelSolCostaRica
Asking  $250,000.    Call Gary 8784-2945 or email combrokers@aol.com
88059-xxxx

humming bird nest

Bed & Breakfast for sale and personal home with 2 houses on property of 3/4 acre (3,030 m2) and buildings w/verandas & carport approximately 350 m2. One house at entrance is central to village w/gated parking lot and a 3-bedroom house for rental or employees/family w/carport/yard/gardens. A 50-meter sendero winds to the top among lush gardens where the main house is situated w/2 buildings attached by verandas & stairway to second floor.  There are 2 bedrooms, sala, 4 baths, large kitchen, laundry rooms, work bodega, storage bodega and hot tub on veranda w/tiled shower room.  Home is surrounded by tropical gardens, views of Arenal Volcano, panoramic views of Lake Arenal, private w/school owned property on one side, pasture land on back side and connecting entry gate on other side to Cabinas El Castillo & Fusion Restaurant.  A bird watcher's paradise w/hummingbirds, Montezuma, toucans, butterflies and visits from howler monkeys.  The B&B is listed four consecutive editions of Lonely Planet and the first established B&B in this area.  Photos can be viewed on the Web site: www.hummingbirdnestbb.com.  Make your dream come true with a slice of paradise in a quiet, private setting. Call Ellen Neely at  8835-8711.  Email: nidocolibri@hotmail.com
8058-11/15/13

Liberia farm
Must Sell - Immediately
Guanacaste - Liberia Farm

9 hectares (24 acres)
$ 0.66 cents per square meter
Riverfront property and amazing views of 3 volcanoes
10 minutes from Liberia center
$59,500 plus all legal fees
marinakuperman@gmail.com
347-535-4516
8057-9/14/13

Naranjo views

NARANJO VIEW PROPERTY READY TO BUILD: ALL PERMISSIONS

4254 msq. 1.2 acres - $59,000.00
• 10 minutes to the autopista and Naranjo centro
• Tranquil and Quiet
• Landscaped with fruit trees and flowering plants, and coffee#
• Incredible views - The Central Valley and nature reserve
• Close to public transportation - paved main road
• Building pad prepared and soil tested
• Survey/topo
• All services in place and underground - water/electricity/phone
Email monicacal@mac.com
8034-8/19/13

Guiones retreat
SURFERS PARADISE on PLAYA GUIONES, NOSARA
Approximately half acre on the beach with private path to the surf. Very private three-home complex with pool, spacious patios with two wet bars, barbeque and yoga area. Featuring a three-bedroom ranch style home plus a two story Mexican villa style home with two master suites, large kitchen and living area with ocean views and breezes upstairs and a garden apartment downstairs with separate entrance. A caretaker's or teenager's cottage and lots of space for expansion. PRICED FOR QUICK SALE: $899,000.  Call 506 8867-8883 or heidebob2@gmail.com
8027-1/12/14

Beautiful fully renovated house in Bello Horizonte, Escazu, 446 sq. meters. Four bedrooms; four baths. Price includes all furniture and fixtures - ready to move in! Light, bright and airy....$550,000 USD. Telephone 2288.6451. More details HERE!
8010-7/28/13

Flamingo
                            view
Condo for sale in Flamingo

Ocean view 3-bedroom, 3 1/2-bathroom condo. Designer furnished 1,800 square feet, gated community. Only six units. Huge pool and balcony, pet friendly, parking, walking distance to Flamingo beach, banks, grocery store, farmacia, etc. New building. $349,000 asking. Ask for photos. 8705-0056. or 1-800-536-2322.
7986-8/6/13

Guaancaate condos
Little Dreams La Colina Magnolias

Great Guanacaste Beach Condos Available

$28,500 - Little Dreams - Ocotal beach studio condo, furnished upper floor condo in great complex just 1 mile from Ocotal beach, 2 miles from Coco beach, great price for this complex.
$70,000 - La Colina - another Ocotal beach 2 bedroom, 2 bath condo, 80 m2 and fully furnished with upgraded kitchen, complex has Infinity pool, mountain views.

$75,000 Magnolias 2 bedroom, 1.5 bath townhome just 1 minute's walk from Coco beach and the 2 beach clubs in Coco. Nicely furnished, walk to town, 67 m2, perfect location.
Find out more information on these and other condos at my website WendyLovesCostaRica.com. All 3 of these condos are about 35 minutes away from Liberia Intl. airport, no need to drive a long way to get to your condo.  Call for more information, 1-415-670-9382 or 011-506-826-1211. Or email Wendy@WendyLovesCostaRica.com.
7971-6/23/13

NOW REDUCED TO $680,000
ALAJUELA – PRIVATE COMPOUND OF 4 HOMES - $850,000 TURNKEY
Spectacular view property on a ridge near Alajuela.  Large home and 3 rental homes totaling 7,300 square feet (678 square meters) live-in construction.  Property area is 3,376 square meters (0.83 acres) including a vacant lot for expansion options.  In total there are 10 bedrooms, each with an ensuite bath.  Property has pool, rancho, mirador, courtyard and covered parking.  Homes have romantic fireplaces, built-ins, storage, other luxury features.  Turnkey sale includes all appliances, furniture, fixtures, equipment.  Call Gerry at (506) 2441-8796 or e-mail at gerrybuilt2000@yahoo.com.  See property video here:

See virtual tour of accommodations here:

For more details go to:
7967-7/17/13

Nicoya views
Property with ocean and gulf view for sale
Tranquil million dollar view, 5,000-sq.meter property with 3/2 home built to American standards, artistically designed and decorated, 16-foot ceilings of mango and tamarindo, appliances, plunge pool, rancho, caretaker apartment, workshop, covered parking, views of Gulf of Nicoya and ocean, in countryside near San José to Caldera highway. Near the lovely town of Esparza. Can provide extra income from bed and breakfast room rental and stellar Tripadvisor reviews. www.oasisbytheseabandb.com $180,000 506-8869-9274.
7882-4/15/13

For Sale By Owner
1 lot (1.5 acres)  at SIBU (8 lots total) amongst 50 acres of protected jungle gardens with sunset ocean views of Playa Nosara. Underground electric and water.13 minutes from Playa Guiones. Gated. In house financing available. Home of SIBU Sanctuary. jungalow@gmail.com.
7845-8/18/13

Real estate services
Real estate for sale
Businesses for sale

Business for sale or lease (paid category)7115-12/16/11
A successful, local, long-running business for sale.
In the nine years of operation, this company has grown to cover the entire Southern Pacific Zone, and opened the door to further penetration in San Jose,  Manuel Antonio and Osa Peninsula areas.  And it is the only one of its kind with no comparable competition. With the extensive ground-work that has already been achieved, the business is now poised to expand into a new level of success. Operating since 2005, the owner retiring to another Latin American country. It is now time to turn the business over to a new owner who could expand it to  even greater success.  Details on the business, its history, a strategic analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, as well as a Pro-Forma Income Statement from 2008 through to 2013 are available upon request to aha_jm@yahoo.com
8081-10/9/13

Live the dream!
Several profitable businesses, including a regional radio station, are for sale in Costa Rica. Certain purchases can provide the new owner with residency as well as a great lifestyle. So live your dream while making a profit. Contact: manager@crbusiness.biz.

Real estate services
Real estate for sale
Businesses for sale

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A.M. Costa Rica's
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San José, Costa Rica, Wednesday,  Sept. 25, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 190
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HIV infection rate said
to be cut significantly


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

A new report from UNAIDS indicates that the rate of new HIV infections has dropped significantly over the past decade. The report estimated 2.3 million adults and children were newly infected with HIV in 2012, a figure that represents a 33 percent reduction in annual new cases compared to 2001.
 
The report says the most striking results in combating HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, are to be found among children, for which the number of new HIV infections has been cut by 52 percent since 2001.
 
Mahesh Mahalingam is the director of the Office of the Deputy Executive Director of UNAIDS.  He said a major element of this progress is that many more pregnant women who are living with HIV are receiving medication that prevents transmission of the disease from mother to child.
 
“Nearly 62 percent of women who are pregnant and have HIV have received anti-retroviral medicine.  As a result, the number of children becoming infected with HIV has dropped to record low levels from nearly half a million just about 10 years ago.  Now only about 260,000 children were infected with HIV.  We hope that by 2015, we can bring this number down to virtually zero,” said Mahalingam.
 
The report notes that some 9.7 million people in low and middle-income countries were accessing antiretroviral therapy by the end of 2012, an increase of nearly 20 percent in just one year. The report’s authors say this dramatic acceleration makes them optimistic that the Millennium Development Goal of having 15 million people on HIV treatment will be reached by the 2015 target date.
 
In 2012, the report found an estimated 35.3 million people globally were living with HIV and 1.6 million had died from AIDS-related illnesses. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily infected region in the world.
 
It says most new HIV infections have occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa, while the continent as a whole accounts for nearly 75 percent of all people living with HIV in the world.  Mahalingam points out that government leadership combined with community action is succeeding in turning the epidemic around in some places.
 
“The most amount of progress is happening in the country that has the largest number of people living with HIV in the world, and that is South Africa.  In South Africa, record numbers of people have been put on antiretroviral therapy and… about 50 percent decline in new infections have occurred in that country,” he said.
 
The study found rises in new HIV infections in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.  It says Ukraine is making progress in combating the disease, but elsewhere in Eastern Europe drug-injecting users are fueling the epidemic.
 
It says most new HIV infections in developed, Western countries are occurring among gay men.  It says people in the United States and Europe view AIDS as a chronic disease, one which can be treated with medication.  As a consequence, the report says many people are becoming complacent and are no longer taking preventive measures.
 
UNAIDS says punitive laws that criminalize sexual behavior, in addition to stigma and discrimination, prevent people from coming forward to learn their HIV status and get treatment.  It warns that this has the effect of driving the disease underground and worsening the epidemic.


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From Page 7:

Firms with fewer accidents get rebates

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

The Instituto Nacional de Seguros, the state-owned insurance company, has returned some 230 million colons, about $460,000, to 29 companies that have had low employee accident rates.

The money comes from the premiums of the riesgo de trabajo policies the firms carry.

Some of the firms, like Cemex de Costa Rica  S.A., Holcim Costa Rica S.A. and Standard Fruit Co. de Costa Rica S.A. are among the nation's industrial giants.

All the firms were honored at a gathering Tuesday. They helped the insurance firm known as INS to reduce claims for workplace injuries. The percentage of such incidents this year is projected to be 7.6, the insurance giant said. In 2008 the percentage was 9.66.

INS covers 425,764 employees. There are 1,200 firms that are enrolled with INS, a decline from 1,612 in 2012, the insurance firm said.

The insurance firm also runs a program whereby employers can receive suggestions on how to prevent workplace accidents.