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(506) 2223-1327                         Published Friday, Aug. 23, 2013, in Vol. 13, No. 167                 Email us
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Cascata del Bosco



march
Servicios Periodísticos Globales S. A. photo
Hundreds of Guanacaste residents, including the mayors of the 11 cantons and President Laura Chinchilla, marched Thursday to remind
Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega that the province is Costa Rican. The flag above is the official Guanacaste banner. Our story is HERE!


Public opinion seems to have done a quick handstand
By Jay Brodell
editor of A.M. Costa Rica

Some 24 years ago in the twilight of the Cold War, there seemed to be cultural and psychological .
lliberty
differences that allowed residents of some nations to accept authoritarianism and others to cherish their independence.

Colleagues and I set out to map these differences and create an index that would define population groups by their opinions on freedom of expression and censorship.

That project came from the old idea that people get the government they deserve.

We presumed that Russians wanted to have a czar, so residents there were high on acceptance
of censorship. Latin Americans, we thought, highly valued professionalism, so they would accept rules that required university degrees for reporters.

Individuals differ, but the average of their opinions, we thought, could be calculated and compared to the opinions of residents of other countries.

There is a lot of evidence to support that. The British
Stalin
accept an official secrets act. Costa Rica once tried to force anyone reporting for a newspaper to be a member of the Colegio de Periódistas. Some Latin countries still do.

Naturally, we considered the United States with its First Amendment as the perfect standard by which all other countries should be judged.

The idea has some merit and grew out of the
scholarship on dimensions of freedom of the late, great John Calhoun Merrill of Louisiana State University and the University of Missouri, although he had no part in the planning.

A little while later the Iron Curtain collapsed opening up previously inaccessible countries to academic study. The jubilation of the destruction of the wall between East  and West seemed to be a
ratification of the idea that all peoples would seek freedom and free expression if given the chance. That was the dream.

The index project never got completed because of time and other endeavors, and, in retrospect, clearly we were naive.

Today such a project would have to consider fear of personal safety and other factors that cause citizens to accept the actions of their governments.

There once was a time when many newspeople thought that the public was prone to defend free expression and their reporting.

If a heavy-handed authoritarian figure rose up to squelch the press, the people would rise up and duplicate the final scenes in "Frankenstein" along with the torches and the pitchforks.

Richard Nixon had been run out of office for
nixon
spying on Democrats and other members of the public. He had an enemies list. He used the Internal Revenue Service to attack opponents. He was soon gone.

What would have happened if The Washington Post learned Nixon's crew had
intercepted 56,000 messages of innocents?

The mood of the U.S. public seems to have changed drastically since 1974 or 1989, and what was considered attributes of the public mind are clearly false now.

Imagine a new index questionnaire that asked respondents:

1. How likely are you to allow federal officers to inspect your shoes as you walk barefoot through the airport?

2. How strongly would you oppose letting security guards xray you down to your undies before you board a plane.

3. Would you call yourself concerned or unconcerned if thousands of your fellow citizens were prohibited from flying in airplanes for reasons that were not disclosed to them?

4. How strongly would you support rounding up Muslims and putting them in camps to keep our country safe?

Obviously we must begin working on a totally new index.

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A.M. Costa Rica's  Second news page
San José, Costa Rica, Friday, Aug. 23, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 167

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Professional Directory
A.M. Costa Rica's professional directory is where business people who wish to reach the English-speaking community may invite responses. If you are interested in being represented here, please contact the editor.


Dentistry

Dr. Vargas

Dental implants in Costa Rica

Call us: Within C.R.  2225-1189
From USA    1-866-7060-248
Please visit:
 www.dentalimplantsti.com

Or email;
 implantesdentales@ice.co.cr

7989-8/13/13
Dr. Vargas

Dr. Vargas
8065-10/14/13

Marco Cavallini & Associates
Dental Implants and Crowns

Dr. Marco A. Muñoz Cavallini has placed and restored
DR. Cavallini
Dr. Marco A. Muñoz Cavallini
over 17,000 dental implants since 1980. The Dr. Marco Muñoz Cavallini Dental Clinic, is recognized as one of the best practices in Dental Reconstruction, Dental Implant placement and Cosmetic Dentistry in Costa Rica and the World. For more information, visit us today at: marcomunozcavallini.com
7969-5/9/14


Psychotherapy

Lucinda Gray, Ph.D.
California Licensed Psychologist
25 years experience
Dr. KLycinda
                                                  Gray
Lucinda Gray, Ph.D.
   •  Transformational  
           Psychotherapy

   • Depression

   • Anxiety

   • Relationship Issues

   • Fast-Track Meditation

   • Focusing Training


Phone : 2203-4954

www.DrLucindaGray.com
7795-7/15/13

Architects

Organe headline
Architecture-Real Estate-Development

At Architect Orange we are inspired by the visions of each of our clients, and have worked diligently to embody those visions in our work.

We have locations in Atenas (servicing Central Valley/Beach areas)
Arenal (servicing Guanacaste/Nicoya Peninsula)

Contact Information:
 (506) 2694-4712
Website http://www.architectorange.com
Inquires  info@architectorange.com
Arenal office located at Agua Inn Spa

Orange slogan
8043-7/31/14

Real estate agents and services

Clinas del
                                                      Sol
COLINAS DEL SOL
Jim Day, retirement specialist Representing Colinas del Sol del Pacifico, S. A
A fenced and gated project with the ex-pat hortaculturalist in mind. There are 88 clear-title hobby farms with water and electricity.  The layout is designed to provide ample space for your vegetable gardening ands fruit tree projects.
You can see more on our Web site: www.colinasdelsolcr.com
 Libertad, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, 15 minutes to Playa del Coco or Playa Hermosa
and 20 minutes to Liberia airport.
Please contact Jim Day at JimDay50@aol.com   or    Phone:  001 517 484-3675.
7858-8/26/13

Grecia logo
Grecia Real Estate
Here in Costa Rica, Central America , the most beautiful houses, lots and farms in Grecia,
western Central Valley.
Great climate and safe communities.
Great deals for you!
SEE OUR OFFERS HERE!
Visit our Web site: www.greciarealestate.com
Contact Christian Arce in English:
Cell phone (506) 8538-6186
Contact Luis Arce in English: 
Cell phone (506) 7100 8489
Contact Luis G. Jiménez in Spanish:
Cell phone (506) 8707-4016
Send us your request to our email: info@greciarealestate.com
8067-9/7/13


CR Beach

CR Beach Investment Real Estate
reminds you that Costa Rica’s #1 beachtown,“the new Jacó,” invites you to see the recent changes:  clean paved roads; more bilingual police; more trendy & tipico restaurants; new a/c movie 4plex & new theatrical-conference center; new central park with activities; more bargain priced properties for sale, and lower priced rentals…
Our agents have been here a minimum of 10 years:
 Colin Miller, Frances,  Junior and Owner-Broker Jeff Fisher enjoy helping clients like you find their dream properties.
Let CR Beach show you why we know this is the best area for you to  invest-retire-enjoy!
Special Offer this Week: Best Condo deal in Jacó
Best Home deal in Playa Hermosa: HERE!
Member of the N.A.R., the Costa Rican Real Estate Board CRGAR and the Central Pacific Chamber of Commerce.
www.CRbeach.com    info@crbeach.com
Toll Free: 1-888-782-1119 
Office: 2643-4334, 2643-3672
Located in the heart of Jacó. IL Galeone Center, Jacó, Costa Rica
8017-10/27/13

Residency experts

Residency in Costa Rica
A full service immigration agency
U.S. and San José offices
Getting and authenticating documents can be a chore —

we know how to do it. Experienced with many nationalities. Up-to-date on
Costa Rica's evolving immigration law.
Pensionado and rentista. Your first stop for smooth, professional service and a positive experience. Javier Zavaleta javier@residencyincostarica.com
www.residencyincostarica.com
Tel: (323) 255-6116
7999-9/11/13

Insurance

Project completion specialists

Pacifica
                                                logo
Pacifica living
                                                room
A turnkey home and project completion agency devoted to creative vision and flawless execution. We provide a single, solid and dedicated point of contact for the duration of your real estate project, specializing in:

  • Building completion services
  • Interior design & decoration
  • Custom furniture design & manufacturing.

Our primary goal is to assist our clients with a smooth transition to occupancy while providing highly personalized and distinctive services. We have refined the process to be a hassle free experience, especially valuable for clients who live abroad. We customize to suit each client’s personal taste, lifestyle and budget.
Serving region for 10 years.
We regularly exceed client expectations. We guarantee it.
Email: info@casadelpacifico.com
Cell phone: (506) - 8707-8008
Office phone: (506) - 2288-5644
Web: www.casadelpacifico.com
8070-2/14/13

Legal services

FULLY BILINGUAL ATTORNEY
& NOTARY PUBLIC

Arcelio Hernandez

Official English/Spanish translator and interpreter
Serving the international community  since 2001
Lic. Arcelio Hernandez Mussio, Jr.
With over a decade of experience in the fields of:
Family law, criminal & constitutional law, civil & commercial law

Visit the website at:  CRTitle.com
Email: lawyer@crtitle.com
Cell: 8710-9827
Skype:  hernandez.mussio
Serving the Great Metropolitan Area, Central and South Pacific
scales
Member of the Colegio de Abogados de Costa Rica
Lawyer ID number: 12.358
7923-10/15/13

KEARNEY-LAWSON & Asoc.
Lic.Gregory Kearney Lawson.
Attorneys at Law and real estate brokers
Relocation services, Wedding Planning
Greg Kearney
 
*Investments  *Corporations
*Tax Shelters *Immigration
*Real Estate Sales in Costa Rica
*Name & Product registration
*Business procedures 
*Family and Labor Law
*Locate People   *Private Investigations
  Phone:  7157-9092
 Phone: (506) 2232-1014
7920-10/11/13

ONE STOP LAW OFFICES OF
MARIO VALVERDE BRENES
Attorney At Law – CPA

Mario Valverde
Everything you need to do and stay in business in Costa Rica. We'll incorporate you, take care of your immigration status, get your legal permits and licenses, keep your books and taxes and represent you in any legal process, either civil, commercial, criminal, tax, labor, family and torts.
 
We've been helping people like you since 1986.
 
Contact us at: (506) 2215-0001; (506) 8312-3087
Email: mario.valverde@ice.co.cr
7841-8/11/13



Accountants

U.S. Tax International

Plus Costa Rican taxes, accounting, and legal services
Over 15 years in Costa Rica
(English Spoken)
C.R. 2288-2201   U.S 786-206-9473
FAX: 2231-3300
E-mail: ustax@lawyer.com
8000-9/5/13

U.S. Income Tax
David G. Housman Attorney & C.P.A
.
in Costa Rica 32 years.
Specializing in all matters of concern to U.S. taxpayers residing abroad, including all new passport and other
Goliath
I.R.S.  filling requirements foreign income tax exclusion (to $95,100 per year) for all back years. Taxpayers filling past-due tax returns before I.R.S. notice do not face criminal sanctions
• Associate of James Brohl
Phone: (506) 2239-2005 Fax 2239-2437

E mail: papahound@comcast.net
7667-10/17/12

James Brohl, C.P.A. & M.B.A.
US Income Tax,  US GAAP Accounting
& Business Consulting

Uncle Sam's
                                            hat
• US Tax return preparation  for
individuals and businesses
• eFile returns: secure with faster refunds
• Assist with back reporting and other filing issues
• Take advantage of the Foreign
Income Tax Exclusion (up to $
95,100 in 2012}
• Business Consulting to facilitate working in Costa Rica
• Accounting for US and International Financial Reporting
• Associate of David Housman

Telephone 8305-3149 or 2256-8620
E-mail jrtb_1999@yahoo.com
7410-4/1/13


rodeo work
Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos      
y Atención de Emergencias photo     
The national emergency commission said that it is spending 627 million colons or about $1.25 million to fix three troublesome sections, such as the one above, on the road to El Rodeo de Mora and the Universidad para la Paz. Those who use the road said that  it is closed most of the day except at lunch.


Model provides an overview
of possible arsenic pollution


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Like residents of some sections of Costa Rica, about 140 million people around the world drink water contaminated with unsafe-levels of arsenic. The element is found naturally in rocks and soil, but exposure to it presents a major public health problem, especially in regions where untreated groundwater is the only reliable source of drinking water. Scientists have deployed a new statistical tool that can help predict the greatest risk of contamination.

Luis Rodriguez-Lado led the team that designed the method.  The soil scientist from University of Santiago de Compostela says the model was tested in China, where in 1994 the Chinese government declared arsenic poisoning an endemic disease.

Officials responded with an initiative to test all wells in the country.  Rodriguez-Lado says the effort is so massive that it could take decades to complete.  He says his model can help speed that up, while it complements traditional testing methods.

“Our model provides a quick overview of the areas potentially at risk," he said. "So it can be used to optimize the screening efforts at full scale and prioritize the analysis of the areas potentially at high risk, saving money and time."

That model, described in the journal Science, identifies Chinese arsenic hot spots based on factors thought to be predictors of high levels of the chemical element, like soil moisture, salinity and topography. 

In a companion piece in the same journal, University of Delaware geologist Holly Michael says the scientists also combined their probability maps with population data to estimate the scope of potential problems.
 
“This is valuable because it uses easily accessible data, data you can see on land surface and that in some cases can be detected remotely, say from the sky," she said. "Their analysis then allows them to take this information and then identify areas that are at risk of having high arsenic in the subsurface,  in their drinking water."

That analysis shows that 19.5 million Chinese live in high-risk areas.  Ms. Michael says the model also identified regions not previously thought to be at risk, like the central part of Sichuan province.  

"And if you look at the maps that they produce, you will see that not all areas have high risk.  So it is valuable to be able to identify those high risk areas and then make sure that as many wells as possible in those areas are tested," she said.

Lead author Rodriguez-Lado says the method used in China is not limited to China or arsenic.  He calls it a promising technique for risk maps for any kind of pollutant.

“We believe that in the coming years environmental modeling will be generalized and used for many pollutants and even more efficient than it is today," he said.

Rodriguez-Lado says he hopes his team’s work can be used to support well monitoring programs currently in place and promote others.

“This kind of study,” he says, “can help improve health for millions of people, especially in developing countries.”


Earthquake simulation today
at 10 a.m. in San Sebastián


By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Who says you can't predict an earthquake?

The national emergency commission has one scheduled for 10 a.m. today at the  Escuela República de Haití in San Sebastian.

The earthquake simulation is practice for school officials and others. Representatives from 27 public school regions will attend.

The school is near the Walmart store south of the Circunvalación.


Three held in robbery cases
in Rohrmoser and la Sabana


By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Three young men from Pavas have been detained in three robberies and at least one rape., The crimes took place in May and June and involved pedestrians in the Rohrmoser and la Sabana areas.

Victims said that men with guns pulled up in two cars. One of the victims, a woman, reported that she was raped, said the Judicial Investigating Organization. The crimes happened in the late afternoon.

Agents said they confiscated a toy gun when they made the arrests Thursday morning.



Vitamins from the United States
confiscated by tax agents


By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

The tax police said Thursday that they had intercepted 378 kilos of vitamins and natural supplements that had come into the county from the United States.

The confiscation was made in a customs warehouse in Heredia. Much of the material was in bulk, said the  Policía de Control Fiscal. They said there were 416,997 units of the confiscated material.

In addition to not being approved for use in the country, the police said that the shipment was undervalued for duty purposes.


Four traffic officers face
claims of helping drunks


By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Four traffic officers have been detained on allegations that they failed to arrest drunk drivers in exchange for bribes.

One incident involving one officer took place in March in San Pedro, said the Judicial Investigating Organization. The officer was investigating a crash in which a vehicle collided with the wall of a home.

Two officers are under investigation for a similar incident in January in Curridabat. A fourth officer faces a similar allegation based on an incident in San Antonio de Desamparados.


Three held on fuel rule

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Three men in a boat were detained Thursday morning at sea apparently operating an ocean-going fuel station.

The men were in a launch with some empty containers and some full ones. They are being held in violation of a law that regulates the amount of fuel that may be carried. The rule is to prevent the refueling of drug boats.

The arrests took place 30 miles off  Boca del Parismina, Limón.


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Readers should refresh the page and, if necessary, dump the cache of their computer, if this problem persists. Readers in Costa Rica have this problem frequently because the local Internet provider has continual problems.


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San José, Costa Rica, Friday, Aug. 23, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 167
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Beginnings of the weekend will be wet, weather institute says
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

The country today continues to be under the influence of one of those tropical waves, a trough of low pressure that brings rain, thunderstorms and weather instability.

The Instituto Meteorológico Nacional said that there will be rain today, mainly in the Pacific and the northern zone. There also will be some in the Central Valley. The agency urged caution.

There was some rain Thursday afternoon and evening in the Central Valley.

The weather institute said there would be heavy downpours with strong winds.

The tropical wave is to the north along the Caribbean coast of  Nicaragua and Honduras. But the effects are being felt here.

The wave also seems to be pulling what is known as the zone
of tropical convergence north to amplify the rain here.

The weather institute issued a prediction of up to 100 millimeters of rain for the northern zone, the Pacific and the Central Valley at 3:30 p.m. Thursday.

But by early today, only 13.6 millimeters (less than half an inch) had fallen in San José and just 20.8 millimeters (eight-tenths of an inch) had been reported at Daniel Oduber airport in Liberia. The total of 100 millimeters is about four inches.

There was heavy rain elsewhere. The Consejo Nacional de Vialidad said that a storm on the Interamericana Ruta 1 at  Cambronero caused trees to fall blocking the important route. The route was believed to have been opened later Thursday evening.

The  Instituto Meteorológico Nacional said that the rain would intensify though this morning and that the unstable weather would continue into Saturday.


All medical tests for driving licenses will be digital on Sept. 6
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Beginning Sept. 6, the medical report that individual need to obtain or renew a driver's license will be a digital file.

The  Dirección General de Educación Vial said Thursday that there has been an agreement with the medical professional association that a physician's report will be sent to the association digitally. When someone shows up to get a driver's license,  Educación Vial will be able to access the file at the  Colegio de Médicos y Cirujanos.

The physician's organization has not been issuing the blank paper forms since March.

Under the traffic law that has been in force and updated over the last two years, a blood test is no longer required.
Physicians have said that they are not ready to accept what is on a driver's license when someone comes to the emergency room after an accident.

Good practice dictates doing their own test, they have said.

Educación Vial said that using a digital method will save money and also avoid possible loss by license seekers.

Some physician have been using the digital system for nearly a year.

Those seeking licenses are not required to obtain the medical form on the same day. The report, known as the  dictamen médico, is valid for six months. Still most license seekers get the limited medical and eye test done on the same day because there are physicians specialized in this near the licensing bureaus.


Telling a story is brought to a high art by a professional
 Stories have been told since there were words to tell them. Some tell the history of a people, others to entertain and others are simple fabrications to mislead.  Poet, novelist, dramatist, essayist and professor of English Reynolds Price, wrote in his book, “A Palpable God.” 

“A need to tell and hear stories is essential to the species Homo sapiens – second in necessity apparently after nourishment and before love and shelter. Millions survive
Mc Gabriel
Michale  Gabriel
without love or home, almost none in silence; the opposite of silence leads quickly to narrative, and the sound of story is the dominant sound of our lives, from the small accounts of our day's events to the vast incommunicable constructs of psychopaths.”

I know a story teller, the first professional story teller I have ever met, and she has, I am sure, listened to the small accounts of someone’s day and the incommunicable constructs of those who cannot utter much of anything, and she has changed
their lives, both through listening and through her own magical story telling.

Michale  Gabriel was the guest speaker at this month’s meeting of the Women’s Club of Costa Rica.   In some ways it is remarkable that this woman who has told her stories in many cities in the United States and in countries in many parts of the world has settled here where she was not known.  On the other hand it is not strange, because the whole point of her story telling is to make peace between peoples and to heal those who are in pain by telling a story.

There are the stories of the Bible, the myths that have been passed through the ages, and the fables that have been written down.  There is nothing quite as powerful as watching a story unfold, not just with words, but actions and voices and expressions and pacing and pauses at just the right time, drawing the listener into it. And then the listener remembers the message that all good stories want to bring.  This is the way Michale tells stories. 

She re-enacted some of her stories and told us of some of her experiences telling stories.  One in particular struck me because her story (actually, stories) gave a voice to someone without one.  Alex is a little boy who, as a result of being hit by a car while riding his bicycle was paralyzed from the neck down and needed a tracheotomy in order to breath.  In order to speak, Alex had to utter his words as he breathed out.  Alex had no desire to even try except in short responses to questions.

Michale was asked to visit him in the hospital.  During her second story, the well known “Three Bears,” she noticed that Alex’s mouth was forming a word and she waited, and instead of “porridge” (‘this porridge is too hot”) he breathed out “soup!”  From then on Michale waited for Alex to contribute his words.  One day Alex told her that he wanted to tell her a story “out of his head” This scene was repeated each time she visited him.  With her encouragement, “Alex, you have many stories; you are a story teller!”  Alex found his voice.

There were many things I learned listening to Michale tell stories, including her own . One of the most important is that
Butterfly in the City
 
. . .  Musings from San José

By Jo Stuart
jostuart@amcostarica.com

Jo Stuart


too often when someone is telling a story, perhaps about an experience that has special meaning to them, they are often interrupted by the listener with “Oh, that reminds me of....”  The kindest gift you can give to another who is sharing her story is to listen and not interrupt... and only hope that your listeners will offer the same gift. 

Another of her stories struck me: the story of a little girl named Emma who lived in a mining town and whose family was so poor she did not have a coat to wear to school when fall came.  The women in her mother’s quilting bee collected scraps of clothing to make warm quilts.  When they realized Emma’s plight, they made her a colorful coat of some of the scraps.  She proudly went to school in her new coat, only to be laughed at by the other children for wearing a “rag coat.”  She left school in tears but a few days later returned in her coat and when they began to jeer at her again, Emma said, “These are not rags,” and went on to point to each piece of fabric and explain how it was connected to one of the children, either as a baby blanket or something they once wore.  “When I wear this coat I am surrounded by all my friends,” she said, or words to that effect.  And she was.

Using stories, not as a weapon or a threat, but as a peace offering, seems a great way to disarm someone or ‘someones’ and turn them into friends.  I think Michale’s choice of Costa Rica was just right.

For more information about Michale Gabriel and storytelling, go to www.storybydesign.net

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Fish Fabulous Costa Rica

A.M. Costa Rica's Fourth News page
San José, Costa Rica, Friday, Aug. 23, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 167
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Officials in Nicoya say that they fielded 2,500 for Guanacaste march
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Organizers said that 2,500 persons marched Thursday in Guanacaste  to reaffirm their Costa Rican roots.

They were responding to a remark made last week by Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega that he might want to reclaim the province by seeking a decision from the World Court.

Guanacaste has been Costa Rican since 1824.

But the mayors of the 11 cantons of the province thought that they should ratify that fact.  During a morning meeting of the municipal council of Nicoya Thursday the mayors signed a manifesto that reaffirms the vote that took place 189 years ago. Also present was President Laura Chinchilla
Many of the marchers were school children who were released from classes to participate.

Later Ms. Chinchilla spoke at the inauguration of classes at the  Universidad para la Paz at Ciudad Colón. She said she supported freedom of expression despite the bad press she has received lately.

Ortega's government is involved in a World Court case with Costa Rica over the invasions of Nicaragua soldiers into the far northeast part of Costa Rica around the mouth of the Río San Juan.

Another controversy is looming as Ortega is making claim to maritime territory that generally has been considered Costa Rican. This is some 35,000 square kilometers in the Pacific Ocean. Costa Rican officials have never been anxious to negotiate with Managua, so this is another case that might end up in The Hague.

 
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The contents of this page and this Web site are copyrighted by Consultantes Río Colorado S.A. 2013 and may not be reproduced anywhere without permission. Abstracts and fair use are permitted.  Check HERE for details



A.M. Costa Rica's
Fifth news page
Cat trees
San José, Costa Rica, Friday, Aug. 23, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 167
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6,000-year-old dirty pots show
that humans used local spice


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Thank God for bad Stone Age chefs, says archaeologist Hayley Saul at the University of York.

“We like dirty pots. People who can’t cook very well," she said. "They burn food onto their pots. That’s what we’re after.”

It’s from those charred remnants of prehistoric dinners that she and her colleagues isolated the first evidence of a spice used in cooking.

They found microscopic traces of garlic mustard in crusts on 6,000-year-old pots found in Germany and Denmark.

Garlic mustard grows wild today throughout Europe and western Asia. And it’s an invasive species in North America.

“The leaves smell like garlic, but the seeds taste like mustard,” Ms. Saul explained. “Hence the name garlic mustard.”

Prehistoric use of spices has been hard to study because plants decompose quickly and are not usually preserved.

But when plant cells decay, they leave behind petrified outlines of themselves in silica.

Studying these outlines, Ms. Saul found modern garlic mustard seed was an excellent match.

She said these early Europeans were using garlic mustard seed to flavor soups of fish or game meat and starchy plants.

Compared to the other ingredients in the soup, she said they “have pretty much no other nutritional value. Basically, its taste value is all it’s got going for it.”

That’s why she considers it a spice.

Ms. Saul added that there have been older finds of seeds and plants that may have been used for flavoring but none found in cooked food.

“The thing that makes our results quite interesting is that because we’re working on pottery residues, we can relate the spice use to an actual culinary use.”

And it suggests that, rather than just cooking to fill bellies, people were cooking for flavor, even 6,000 years ago.

That’s right about at the time that cultures in the region were changing from hunting and gathering to farming.

According to Ms. Saul, there’s evidence that the use of spices migrated along with the arrival of agriculture.

In the Americas, chili peppers were among the first domesticated plants. That culinary breakthrough happened around the same time, about 6,000 years ago, according to retired University of Missouri anthropologist Deborah Pearsall.

“It’s not surprising that people eating kind of a bland diet of domesticated plants would be interested in spices,” she said.

Ms. Pearsall was part of a group that made that discovery by looking at microscopic fossils from the New World like Ms. Saul and her team did in the Old World.

She said the new research opens up the use of these tiny fossils to discover how human ancestors around the world used plants for cooking as well as medicine.

For Ms. Saul, her spice find suggests that people back then were remarkably sophisticated.

“I like the idea that people are just being incredibly creative,” she said. “I do really like the idea that the knowledge that people had in prehistory was very complex. There were so many plants, and so many properties to all of these different foods that people were manipulating to really enhance their cooking.”



Military panel is considering
the fate of terrorist major

By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

The jury is now deliberating in the trial of U.S. Army Major Nidal Hasan, accused of murdering 13 people in a shooting spree at Fort Hood, Texas in November 2009.  The judge turned the case over to the panel, as it is called in military courts, after the prosecution completed its closing statement.  The defendant, who is representing himself, declined to speak.

Isolated in a room in a heavily guarded building at Fort Hood, the panel members are now going over the evidence against Nidal Hasan.  There is no evidence to contradict the prosecution case because Hasan, representing himself, offered none in his defense and openly admitted that he had done the shooting.

In order to show premeditation, which is necessary for conviction on the capital murder charge, the prosecution provided evidence that Hasan had purchased the murder weapon and practiced with it well in advance of the attack.  They also showed he had been motivated by radical Muslims who preach violent jihad against anyone they consider an enemy of Islam.  The presiding judge, Col. Taraaa Osborn, imposed some restrictions, but did allow evidence of Hasan's recent exposure to radical Islam through Internet searches.

The compiled evidence showed that this was a well-planned, jihad-motivated attack, according to Jeffrey Addicott, a military law expert at the Center for Terrorism Law at St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas.

"The government did say in their closing argument today that he was motivated by jihad to engage in these murders.  There is overwhelming evidence to back up that contention," said Addicott.

A few days ago, the prosecution and Hasan agreed on a definition of jihad that could be given to the jury.  It includes the idea of fighting violently against non-believers and a guarantee that anyone killed while carrying out jihad will have a place in paradise.

In order to convict Hasan of the capital murder charge, which carries the death penalty, the jury must make a unanimous decision.  A three-fourths agreement is sufficient for other charges.

Addicott says that if the panel convicts Hasan of the capital charge, it will then move on to the trial's punishment phase.


Polio breaks out of Somalia
to infect Ethiopian child


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

A polio outbreak on the Horn of Africa has spread to Ethiopia.

An 18-month-old child in the Warder district of Ethiopia is the country’s first polio case since 2008.

Warder district is just across the border from Somalia, where 108 polio cases have been reported this year.

Carol Pandak heads Rotary International’s polio eradication program.

“It’s not surprising that the virus is spreading. This area has been considered high risk because of its proximity to Somalia," said Pandak.

A Somali refugee camp in Kenya has also seen 12 cases of the paralyzing disease this year.

The outbreak began in Somalia in May, when a 2-year-old girl came down with the disease, the country’s first since 2007.

But this strain of the virus did not originate there, Pandak says.

“That virus comes from West Africa. And so, we need to deal with the remaining endemic countries because that’s where the virus originates. And so, you have to deal with both at the same time," she said.

Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan are the last three countries where the polio virus is still endemic.


Computer glitch shuts down
major U.S. stock exchange


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Trading in a large part of the U.S. stock market came to a halt for much of Thursday after an unexplained issue shut down trading of NASDAQ-listed securities, the latest black eye for the U.S. securities trading business.
 
The abrupt halt shortly after noon caused trading in shares of Apple, Google, Microsoft and more than 3,000 other U.S. companies to stop.
 
NASDAQ resumed trading at around 3:25 p.m. EDT, ending a roughly 3-hour, 11-minute shutdown that was the longest in recent memory.
 
“Any brokerage firm gets paid by executing orders,” said Sal Arnuk, co-head of equity trading at Themis Trading in Chatham, New Jersey. “So yes, we are frustrated, and this hurts us, it hurts the market and it hurts public confidence.”
 
All traffic through NASDAQ had stopped at 12:14:03 p.m., and the exchange and its larger rival, the New York Stock Exchange, said all trades executed between then and 12:23:31 p.m. would stand.
 
Trading in a single stock resumed at about 3 p.m., and other stocks followed. NASDAQ's own stock, which had been up 0.8 percent prior to the halt, traded down as much as 5.4 percent after trading resumed.
 
NASDAQ blamed a problem with distributing stock price quotes for the shutdown. A source familiar with the matter described the problem as a data feed issue.
 
During the shutdown, trading of shares not listed on NASDAQ continued, but transactions could not be executed on the NASDAQ platform. Options trading was also halted.
 
“I can't remember this happening in recent memory,” said Christopher Nagy, president of consultancy firm KOR Trading and a former head of trading at TD Ameritrade.
 
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission said it was in touch with the exchanges with Chairman Mary Jo White overseeing developments from her home office near New York City.
 
White House spokesman Josh Earnest said President Barack Obama had also been briefed about the disruption.
 
The interruption means that investors had very limited  market access to trade such familiar names as Apple, Inc., Facebook, Inc., Google, Inc., and Microsoft Corp. In all, NASDAQ lists about 3,200 companies.
 
“As we continue to eliminate human beings from the execution of security trading, this is the problem you run into,” said Stephen Massocca, managing director of Wedbush Equity Management LLC in San Francisco. “These events are going to take place, given the level of automation.”

The outage was the latest black eye for NASDAQ, which in May agreed to pay $10 million, the largest penalty ever levied against a stock exchange, to settle SEC civil charges over mistakes in handling the Facebook initial offering.
 
James Angel, a Georgetown University finance professor who also sits on the board of rival exchange operator Direct Edge, said NASDAQ appeared to take steps to ensure that trading reopen in an orderly fashion and with correct pricing.
 
“We can live with the market being closed for a little bit, but we can't live with bad pricing,” he said. “It's far better to have the market shut down and take its time re-opening, than to have what happened with the Facebook incident. It looks like they've learned their lesson.”
 
William Lefkowitz, options strategist at National Securities in New York, said options trading in such companies as International Business Machines Corp. dried up during the halt. But he said the reopening was “very orderly and liquidity is back to normal. It is almost like it did not happen.”

 Tuesday, a technical problem at Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., resulted in a flood of erroneous orders being sent to U.S. equity options markets.
 
Two weeks earlier, on Aug. 6, stock exchange operator BATS Global Markets was hit with a nearly hour-long outage.
 
Last year, a trading blowup at Knight Capital Group, Inc., was a contributing factor to the eventual sale of that company.
 
“The frequency of technical issues affecting trading is a wake-up call to business leaders in capital markets,” said Lev Lesokhin, executive vice president of Cast, a specialist in business software analysis. “They need to carefully scrutinize the structural integrity of their software systems.”
 
Other trading venues were also affected by Thursday's outage, and several dark pools, which execute orders anonymously, were forced to stop trading, according to several market participants.
 
Thursday's outage could cause problems for NASDAQ at the SEC, which has recently cracked down on stock exchanges to beef up their compliance with regulations and make sure they are policing themselves.


Manning sex-change case
a first for the U.S. military

By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Bradley Manning says wants to live as woman named Chelsea. Bradley Manning, the U.S. soldier sentenced to 35 years in military prison for the biggest breach of classified documents in the nation's history, said Thursday he is female and wants to live as a woman named Chelsea.
 
Manning, 25, launched an unprecedented bid to get female hormone treatment in a military prison a day after he was sentenced for leaking documents to the WikiLeaks Web site.
 
“As I transition into this next phase of my life, I want everyone to know the real me. I am Chelsea Manning, I am a female,” Manning said in the statement read by anchorwoman Savannah Guthrie on NBC News' “Today” show.
 
During the sentencing phase of Manning's court-martial for leaking more than 700,000 secret documents, defense attorneys pointed out that the soldier suffered from gender identity disorder. A psychologist testified Manning had a difficult time adjusting to the hypermasculine environment of a combat zone.
 
Manning said in the statement that he wished to begin receiving hormone therapy while serving his sentence in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
 
A spokeswoman said the Army did not provide hormone therapy or gender-reassignment surgery, but that military inmates have access to mental health professionals, including a psychiatrist, psychologist, social workers and behavioral science specialists.
 
“Given the way that I feel and have felt since childhood, I want to begin hormone therapy as soon as possible,” Manning said in the statement. “I also request that starting today you refer to me by my new name and use the feminine pronoun.”
 
Manning's lawyer David Coombs said on the TV program he expected his client to get a pardon from U.S. President Barack Obama. Manning, who was convicted last month at Fort Meade, Maryland, on 20 charges, including espionage and theft, could be eligible for parole in seven years.
 
During the trial, Coombs had argued that Manning had been increasingly isolated and under intense stress when he leaked the files, and that his superiors had ignored warning signs.
 
Coombs said his client was not seeking gender-reassignment surgery, but he would press Fort Leavenworth to provide hormone therapy for Manning.
 
“I'm hoping that Fort Leavenworth will do the right thing and provide that. If Fort Leavenworth does not, then I'm going to do everything in my power to make sure that they are forced  to do so,” Coombs said.
 
Asked if Manning wanted to be sent to a women's prison, Coombs said no.
 
“I think the ultimate goal is to be comfortable in her skin and to be the person that she's never had an opportunity to be,” he said.
 
Coombs said he was not worried about Manning's safety in a military prison since inmates there were first-time offenders who wanted to complete their sentences and get out.
 
Experts generally view military prisons as safer than civilian prisons since the inmates are accustomed to hierarchy and discipline.
 
Manning had not wanted his sexual identity issues to become public, but they did after his arrest in 2010, Coombs said.
 
“Now that it is, unfortunately you have to deal with it in a public manner,” he said.
 
A psychiatrist, Navy Reserve Capt. David Moulton, testified during Manning's trial that the soldier suffered from gender dysphoria, or wanting to be the opposite sex, as well as narcissism and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
 
Geoffrey Corn, a military law expert at the South Texas College of Law in Houston, called Manning's bid for hormone treatment the first of its kind for the military. Openly gay members were barred from serving until the Pentagon's “don't ask, don't tell” policy was repealed in 2011.
 
“We don't have any precedent for the application of military medical care for elective gender reassignment therapy,” he said.
 
Corn was skeptical that Manning would get approval for hormone therapy since federal courts have traditionally given the military deference for its life and activities.
 
Chase Stangio, staff attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union's Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender Project, said in a statement that the Army's saying it did not provide hormone therapy raised serious constitutional issues.
 
Courts have consistently found that denying medical care for gender dysphoria to prisoners based on blanket exclusions violates the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution, which bars cruel and unusual punishment, Stangio said.
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The #1 Authority in Costa Rica Real Estate

Costa Rica real estate
Since 1996, CRREC has been providing the most valuable resource for discovering real estate in Costa Rica. Our Costa Rica properties database contains some of the most exclusive and hard to find properties in the country. Not to mention how affordable some of our Costa Rica homes for sale are. So if you're in the market for Costa Rica real estate then we encourage you to
visit our Costa Rica MLS and discover for yourself why people call CRREC the #1 authority in Costa Rica real estate.
Call Today @ 506-2654-5507 (Costa Rica) or 1-888-414-1836 (Toll-Free) Email: info@costaricarealestate.com
7721-4/29/13



Costa Rica,

Central America
Houses, lots and farms in Grecia,
western Central Valley.
Great climate
and safe communities.
Grecia estate
This is the BIGGEST DEAL of the month now at $850.000: HERE!
Sarchi home
Modern three-bedroon home in San Rafael de Sarchí. Cick HERE!
 Great deals for you!
SEE OUR OFFERS HERE
Visit our Web Site:
 www.greciarealestate.com
 English: (Cristian Arce)
English:  (Luis Arce)
 Español: (Luis G. Jiménez)

   (506) 8538-6186
   (506) 7100-8489
   (506) 8707-4016

  Send us your request to our email: info@greciarealestate.com
8068-11/9/13
Bargain

Real estate for sale (paid category)


Nicoya views
Maui, 50 years ago!
One acre with all services located on the Nicoya Peninsula at about 2,400 feet below cloud level with the most intriguing panoramic views to the picturesque gulf, mountains and valleys, as well as sunset over the Pacific. 60,000 USD, axelspecial@gmail.com    Cell 8916-5550.
8061-xxxxx

Five bedroom home
Five bedrooms, three-and-a-half baths plus guest house
Price reduced $100,000 for quick sale. Features include out door BBQ, swimming pool, plus on the beach. The home is completely furnished with U.S. products. Each room is individually air conditioned.  Hot water in bathrooms, kitchen and laundry room.  Fully furnished. Includes TV’s, refrigerator/freezer, dish washer, microwave, electric stove/oven, washer & dryer and many “as seen on TV” appliances.  To see more, go to YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/user/CasaDelSolCostaRica
Asking  $250,000.    Call Gary 8784-2945 or email combrokers@aol.com
88059-xxxx

humming bird nest

Bed & Breakfast for sale and personal home with 2 houses on property of 3/4 acre (3,030 m2) and buildings w/verandas & carport approximately 350 m2. One house at entrance is central to village w/gated parking lot and a 3-bedroom house for rental or employees/family w/carport/yard/gardens. A 50-meter sendero winds to the top among lush gardens where the main house is situated w/2 buildings attached by verandas & stairway to second floor.  There are 2 bedrooms, sala, 4 baths, large kitchen, laundry rooms, work bodega, storage bodega and hot tub on veranda w/tiled shower room.  Home is surrounded by tropical gardens, views of Arenal Volcano, panoramic views of Lake Arenal, private w/school owned property on one side, pasture land on back side and connecting entry gate on other side to Cabinas El Castillo & Fusion Restaurant.  A bird watcher's paradise w/hummingbirds, Montezuma, toucans, butterflies and visits from howler monkeys.  The B&B is listed four consecutive editions of Lonely Planet and the first established B&B in this area.  Photos can be viewed on the Web site: www.hummingbirdnestbb.com.  Make your dream come true with a slice of paradise in a quiet, private setting. Call Ellen Neely at  8835-8711.  Email: nidocolibri@hotmail.com
8058-11/15/13

Liberia farm
Must Sell - Immediately
Guanacaste - Liberia Farm

9 hectares (24 acres)
$ 0.66 cents per square meter
Riverfront property and amazing views of 3 volcanoes
10 minutes from Liberia center
$59,500 plus all legal fees
marinakuperman@gmail.com
347-535-4516
8057-9/14/13

Naranjo views

NARANJO VIEW PROPERTY READY TO BUILD: ALL PERMISSIONS

4254 msq. 1.2 acres - $59,000.00
• 10 minutes to the autopista and Naranjo centro
• Tranquil and Quiet
• Landscaped with fruit trees and flowering plants, and coffee#
• Incredible views - The Central Valley and nature reserve
• Close to public transportation - paved main road
• Building pad prepared and soil tested
• Survey/topo
• All services in place and underground - water/electricity/phone
Email monicacal@mac.com
8034-8/19/13

Playa Palo Seco - Gorgeous beachfront 2-story home of roughly 2,000 square feet set on a half acre ocean front full of beautiful fruit and shade trees in Playa Palo Seco.
Playa Paol Seco
This home features two bedrooms, three full baths, high quality A/C units, huge front and backyard, and of course, a fantastic view of the Pacific Ocean just feet away from the front door! Playa Palo Seco is only minutes from  the tourist hot spot Jacó but far enough away to be quiet and tranquil. This is an incredible opportunity at $150,000! Owner financing is available! Visit Vistaricarealty.com for more information!
8033-8/19/13

El Castillo - Up to 60-acre tract with breathtaking views of Volcán Arenal and Lake
Catillo
Arenal are available. Multiple GORGEOUS home building sites are scattered throughout this area. This is definitely a one-of-a-kind piece of land that cannot be replicated. Perfectly suited for either real estate investment, homebuilding, or even a resort. Owner financing  is available! Please visit us at Vistaricarealty.com for more information!
8032-8/19/13

San Ramon - Beautiful tracts of land of all shapes and sizes for sale in the San Ramón
San Ramon
area. Vista Rica Realty has been in the business for over 20 years which allows us to outcompete in not only selection, but also price. Oceanview homesites from only $30,000 with easy access to San Ramón. Up to 90-hectare fincas perfect for raising cattle or an off-the-grid project. Owner financing is available! Please visit us at Vistaricarealty.com for more information!
8031-8/19/13

Guiones retreat
SURFERS PARADISE on PLAYA GUIONES, NOSARA
Approximately half acre on the beach with private path to the surf. Very private three-home complex with pool, spacious patios with two wet bars, barbeque and yoga area. Featuring a three-bedroom ranch style home plus a two story Mexican villa style home with two master suites, large kitchen and living area with ocean views and breezes upstairs and a garden apartment downstairs with separate entrance. A caretaker's or teenager's cottage and lots of space for expansion. PRICED FOR QUICK SALE: $899,000.  Call 506 8867-8883 or heidebob2@gmail.com
8027-1/12/14

Beautiful fully renovated house in Bello Horizonte, Escazu, 446 sq. meters. Four bedrooms; four baths. Price includes all furniture and fixtures - ready to move in! Light, bright and airy....$550,000 USD. Telephone 2288.6451. More details HERE!
8010-7/28/13

Flamingo
                            view
Condo for sale in Flamingo

Ocean view 3-bedroom, 3 1/2-bathroom condo. Designer furnished 1,800 square feet, gated community. Only six units. Huge pool and balcony, pet friendly, parking, walking distance to Flamingo beach, banks, grocery store, farmacia, etc. New building. $349,000 asking. Ask for photos. 8705-0056. or 1-800-536-2322.
7986-8/6/13

San Pedro condo
Condo for Sale in Flor del Este
Lourdes, Montes de Oca San Jose

Located behind The Foundation Costa Rica Canada 500 meters north of Inglesia Lourdes. U Latina, UCR, and U Fieditas are located within 5 minutes.  Beautiful mountain view from roof covered 3rd floor terraza. Condo is a 3-story. Three/four-bedroom, three and half bath unit within a secure complex of 40 condos with high cement outside walls with only one entrance manned by an armed guard 24 hours per day. In addition, to security fencing, and electric wire, a recorded security camera system is monitored within the guard house. Residence has a telephone communication system to contact the guard house. In addition there is a green park area inside the complex for children to safely play and an outside parking area in from of guard house for visitors. Equipped with an independent wired security system in addition to iron bars on windows and patio doors. Equipped with circuit breaker box and 220-volt service for hot water heater, stove and dryer. Also has water storage tank under parking area and water pump to maintain high pressure on all three floors. American-style washer and electric dryer, Refrigerator, glass top stove, and kitchen cabinets included. $185,000. Other furniture items may be available for purchase.
Call Bill   (English) C.R. Phone: (506) 6011-6987
U.S. Phone:  6630-886-4458  or   (305) 848- 5577
Spanish  phone number: (506) 8799 4041
Email:  sjogringo@yahoo.com
7973-8/23/13

Guaancaate condos
Little Dreams La Colina Magnolias

Great Guanacaste Beach Condos Available

$28,500 - Little Dreams - Ocotal beach studio condo, furnished upper floor condo in great complex just 1 mile from Ocotal beach, 2 miles from Coco beach, great price for this complex.
$70,000 - La Colina - another Ocotal beach 2 bedroom, 2 bath condo, 80 m2 and fully furnished with upgraded kitchen, complex has Infinity pool, mountain views.

$75,000 Magnolias 2 bedroom, 1.5 bath townhome just 1 minute's walk from Coco beach and the 2 beach clubs in Coco. Nicely furnished, walk to town, 67 m2, perfect location.
Find out more information on these and other condos at my website WendyLovesCostaRica.com. All 3 of these condos are about 35 minutes away from Liberia Intl. airport, no need to drive a long way to get to your condo.  Call for more information, 1-415-670-9382 or 011-506-826-1211. Or email Wendy@WendyLovesCostaRica.com.
7971-6/23/13

NOW REDUCED TO $680,000
ALAJUELA – PRIVATE COMPOUND OF 4 HOMES - $850,000 TURNKEY
Spectacular view property on a ridge near Alajuela.  Large home and 3 rental homes totaling 7,300 square feet (678 square meters) live-in construction.  Property area is 3,376 square meters (0.83 acres) including a vacant lot for expansion options.  In total there are 10 bedrooms, each with an ensuite bath.  Property has pool, rancho, mirador, courtyard and covered parking.  Homes have romantic fireplaces, built-ins, storage, other luxury features.  Turnkey sale includes all appliances, furniture, fixtures, equipment.  Call Gerry at (506) 2441-8796 or e-mail at gerrybuilt2000@yahoo.com.  See property video here:

See virtual tour of accommodations here:

For more details go to:
7967-7/17/13

Nicoya views
Property with ocean and gulf view for sale
Tranquil million dollar view, 5,000-sq.meter property with 3/2 home built to American standards, artistically designed and decorated, 16-foot ceilings of mango and tamarindo, appliances, plunge pool, rancho, caretaker apartment, workshop, covered parking, views of Gulf of Nicoya and ocean, in countryside near San José to Caldera highway. Near the lovely town of Esparza. Can provide extra income from bed and breakfast room rental and stellar Tripadvisor reviews. www.oasisbytheseabandb.com $180,000 506-8869-9274.
7882-4/15/13

For Sale By Owner
1 lot (1.5 acres)  at SIBU (8 lots total) amongst 50 acres of protected jungle gardens with sunset ocean views of Playa Nosara. Underground electric and water.13 minutes from Playa Guiones. Gated. In house financing available. Home of SIBU Sanctuary. jungalow@gmail.com.
7845-8/18/13

Real estate services
Real estate for sale
Businesses for sale

Business for sale or lease (paid category)7115-12/16/11


Live the dream!
Several profitable businesses, including a regional radio station, are for sale in Costa Rica. Certain purchases can provide the new owner with residency as well as a great lifestyle. So live your dream while making a profit. Contact: manager@crbusiness.biz.

Real estate services
Real estate for sale
Businesses for sale

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A.M. Costa Rica's
sixth news page


San José, Costa Rica, Friday, Aug. 23, 2013, Vol. 13, No. 167
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News from the BBC up to the minute















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Latin news from the BBC up to the minute

























Management of free time
vital for retirees, study says


By the Springer Science and Business news staff

Retirees should be masters of their own destiny, and actively manage and plan their free time to ensure a happy and fulfilling retirement. This is the advice of Wei-Ching Wang of the I-Shou University in Taiwan, leader of a study published in Springer’s journal Applied Research in Quality of Life. The study found that the effective management of free time has a far greater impact on a retiree’s quality of life than the amount of time the person actually has available for leisure activities.

Wang and his team studied the responses of 454 Taiwanese retirees to understand if there is a link between their management of free time and their overall quality of life. With regard to their free time, the retirees were asked about the goals they set, their general attitude towards it and how they schedule and manage it. The Quality of Life scale of the World Health Organization was also adapted and used for the purposes of the study.

Free time refers to those periods when people are under no obligation and can decide for themselves what to do. It is usually spent in leisure pursuits in order to relax after experiencing stress, or to improve one’s health. Several previous studies have revealed that leisure time is important for older people and that it has a positive influence on their quality of life, happiness and sense of peace. Other studies have also shown that a lack of planning can create problems such as boredom and an unhealthy sedentary lifestyle.

Compared to studies that focus on the management of work and study time, very little has so far been done on how retirees manage their free time. The current study is therefore of importance, especially in light of an increasingly aging population worldwide due to increased longevity and declining fertility rates. The phenomena of aging, along with an increasingly aging population and longer life expectancy, implies that the overall amount of spare time available to people is increasing. In Taiwan, for instance, nearly 10 percent of its population of 2.44 million people are retired.

“Quality of life is not affected as much by the amount of free time that a retiree has, but on how effectively the person manages this time on hand,” says Wang. “Therefore it is important to educate people on how to use their free time more effectively to improve quality of life.”

Wang therefore advises that governments, community centers and service organizations should consider the introduction of guidance programs or leisure education that teach people the management techniques that they need to schedule their free time better and to make the most of their retirement life.


Honduras approves plan
for militarized anti-drug cops


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

The Honduran Congress approved Thursday the creation of a new military-style police force which is aimed at countering violence spawned by Mexican drug cartels that use the country to transport cocaine.
 
The new security law approved a force that will comprise 5,000 members and will also allow judges and prosecutors to process drug-trafficking cases electronically from outside the Central American country for their own safety.
 
Honduras, home to the world's highest murder rate, has seen drug-related violence grow dramatically in recent years as traffickers use its territory to transport cocaine from producers in South America to consumers in the United States and Europe.
 
“Violence is in every neighborhood and every town, and it needs to be confronted,” said Honduran Security Minister Arturo Corrales. The Honduran army has led the fight against drug gangs until now.
 
President Porfirio Lobo is expected to sign the measure into law in the next few days.
 
In Mexico, where almost 80,000 people have been killed in drug-related violence since 2007, President Enrique Peña Nieto is seeking to build up a new militarized police force to tackle the country's drug war instead of the army.

Costa Rican News
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From Page 7:

Public response generates email flurry

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Operators of a Manuel Antonio real estate project got a painful lesson in email marketing Thursday when their fairly typical and colorful promotional message took on a life of its own.

The email was in the name of Richard Lemire, who identifies himself as founder and general manager of Manuel Antonio Estates. The promotional email his office sent out was not much different than any number that circulate each day.

With one exception. One of the many people who received the message sent a return email asking to be taken off the distribution list. But the Lemire email was so arranged that the return message went to everyone. The original email contained the address of the original distribution list.

This generated a flood or responses from recipients asking to be taken off the list. Each request was copied to every recipient of the original email, generating even more emails of rejection.

Soon thousands of emails were fling back and forth from all over the world. A.M. Costa Rica got more than 100.

As is usually the case,  Lemire included an unsubscribe link at the foot of the email, but many recipients simply responded to the flurry of messages.