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Published Thursday Edition
June 1, 2017, Vol. 17, No. 108
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Airport design
Casa Presidencial graphic
This artist's rendition shows what the new international airport would look like.
Costa Rica announces plans for a new airport
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

The government jubilantly issued a grand plan to build a new major, international airport within the municipality of Orotina on Wednesday.

To be clear, construction is not quite underway yet but it seems as though the current administration under President Luis Guillermo Solís had documents and studies abundant to expedite the process as soon as possible. Cataloged within a thick 2,829 pages was a report containing more than 24 technical and feasibility studies from more than 120 professionals, Casa Presidencial said.

The report included: a site study, master plan, and some pre-design, financial and feasibility studies completed by the Corporación Centroamericana de Servicios de Navegación Aérea and the British construction giant Mott MacDonald Limited.

The former is a regional integration entity in charge of ensuring airworthiness and air safety in the region, according to a statement by the government.

More than $1.8 million was invested in the study alone but perhaps thankfully, this came from the corporation’s member states.

Among other results, the study concluded that the canton of Orotina. For those that do not know, Orotina sits roughly between the capital San José and near a crossroads where travelers can choose to head towards Puntarenas or go south to Tarcoles and Jacó.

If the airport were constructed then presumably it provides an opportunity for tourists and expats to bypass Juan Santamaría International Airport and traffic in the greater metropolitan area altogether. In other words, this means a more direct route to the beaches along or close to the Gulf of Nicoya and beyond.

The master plan details that the new airport would begin operations in 2027 with an expected 7.8 million passengers passing through it each year until reaching its maximum capacity of more than 50 million people every year. The project will be divided in three phases, according to this plan.

The first segment details the construction of around 128,000 square meters worth of a terminal along with two tracks for the planes and a main access road for people to enter and exit the terminal.

The second and third phases construct the second runway, transport infrastructure, the airport’s gates and facilities as well as the terminal.

The total square meters of the terminal is expected to be around 460,000, Horacio Rossi, the director for aviation at Mott MacDonald, said.

The government’s report also yielded the benefits in choosing Orotina including its location as well as the fact that it is almost at sea level and has flat terrain with no mountains as natural obstacles.

The canton also does not have high buildings and the potential for environmental damage is minimal, the government consistently repeated. It seems as if the project is going to be moved forward as quickly as can be.

Shortly after the formal announcement came out as to the existence of plans to build it, Solís and Carlos Villalta, the head of the public works ministry, co-sponsored an executive order issuing eminent domain on the lands where the airport is to be built as being those of public and national interest.

“The surrounding area is mainly composed of plots for growing pastures for livestock, crops, housing and extensive livestock activities,” a statement from the government justifying the move said.

“The rate of environmental fragility is low and very low, the study says, due to the involvement of human activities in the area. The Manglar de Tivives is not affected by the activity, given its location.”

The Consejo Técnico de Aviación Civil was correspondingly then ordered to begin the process of applying for and receiving the approval of the environmental permits popularly known as SETENA.

The entity is also now responsible for promoting the studies at environmental, bird and project development assessments, the government said. Additionally, the group may request the forestry administration to come in and clear the land, if necessary, to execute this project.

It is estimated that the airport would require an initial investment of almost $2 million and generate a total of 80,000 jobs.

These jobs include those directly related to the airport as well as jobs that could be induced or indirectly produced.

The total contribution to the country’s gross domestic product would be $1.5 million each year, Casa Presidencial said.

The study concludes that the airport is financially viable through a public-private partnership involving full funding based on resources that do not come from the government.

Latest government efficiency report issued
By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

The Ministerio de Comercio Exterior, the Junta de Pensiones y Jubilaciones del Magisterio Nacional and the Instituto Nacional de Aprendizaje are the top three most efficient public institutions, according to the latest efficiency report issued by the comptroller’s office.

Under the name of Índice de Gestión Institucional, the report shows that the aforementioned agencies excel in terms of budgetary execution, planning, transparency and user services.

Following the same criteria, the San Luis Gonzaga high school in Cartago, the Comisión Nacional de Asuntos Índigenas and the Parque Marino del Pacífico show up as the least efficient  entities of the government.

The study is based on a survey sent to managers, directors, presidents and heads of 163 public institutions across the country.

The survey includes questions in regards to three main areas: efficiency, transparency and corruption prevention.

Those in charge of filling out the survey have to respond whether their institutions have applied policies to enforce those areas and rate the progress on a scale from 1 to 100.

Specifically the results show that, in terms of efficiency, the main complaint of users is that public officials have a poor sense of customer service.

In regards corruption prevention, the main weaknesses reported are flawed planning and accounting strategies.

In terms of transparency, the study shows that weak information technology infrastructure as well as the lack of proper websites or digital information channels still affect a significant percentage of the country.

In comparison to prior years, the 2016 report shows improvements in overall compliance, human resources management and public biddings, which seem to move towards more organized strategies, according to the document.

By sectors, institutions related to international trade ranked among the first, with the labor and social security sector coming in second and internal revenue one as third.

The arts and culture sector scored last, with poor scores in the information technologies, internal controls and user services criteria.

In general terms, all the public institutions combined received an average grade of 77 percent.


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A.M.
Costa Rica

Second News Page

Published || Thursday Edition, June 1, 2017 || Vol. 17, No. 108
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Professional Directory
A.M. Costa Rica's professional directory is where business people who wish to reach the English-speaking community may invite responses. If you are interested in being represented here, please contact the editor.
U.S. Income Tax

U.S. Income Tax Services
Marlene B. Summers
T
ax Accountant Licensed by the I.R.S.
 
Ms. Summers
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U.S. citizens, plan now for your tax year.  Let me help you pay only the tax  you must!

  If tax payment is a holding you back, the IRS have options that can solve payment problems.  If your filing is not up-to-date, the Streamlined Filing Procedure can be used to mitigate penalties. Including  disclosure of foreign corporations to avoid future problems.  
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Legal Services


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TAX FRAUD DEFENSE /  PANAMA PAPERS

I.R.S. Criminal and Civil Issues

Consult with a U.S. licensed Tax Attorney in Costa Rica concerning your I.R.S. Issues

Tax Fraud Investigation or Prosecution:
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I.R.S. Criminal Investigations, including non-filing of tax returns, tax evasion, filing false income tax returns, money laundering, currency reporting requirements, offshore banking reporting requirements, false statements, and false offer in compromise submissions.

Confidential and Privileged Communication
Former University Lecturer and I.R.S. Lecturer
Harold P. Gewerter, Esq., Ltd., J.D., M.S.
Email: hgewerterlaw@gmail.com
USA phone: (702) 375-9471
CR phone: (506) 6042-7116

Associated with Carballo y Carballo, Abogados
in Costa Rica

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A Fernandez
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Insurance professionals

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Residency experts

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RESIDENCY IN COSTA RICA
A full service immigration agency
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There are four primary ways to apply for legal residency in Costa Rica:
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U.S. Phone: (323) 255-6116
U.S.  Fax (323) 344-1620
Phone in Costa Rica: ( 506 ) 2226=0755  (En español )

Email:  javier@residencyincostarica.com
Web: www.residencyincostarica.com
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 Accountants

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Fine art restoration and conservation

Gilbert Carmichael
Master Art Restorer
European and U.S. standards. USPAP.
 
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9212-5/9/17

Marking
Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Transportes photo        
Unlike this road, Ruta 32 will be closed today for marking.

Ruta 32 closed today for marking work

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Ruta 32 is closing this morning at 8 until 2 p.m. for line painting, according to the public works ministry.

The section of the Braulio Carrillo road cordoned off will be between the Río Frío crossing and San José, the Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Transportes said in a statement. In addition to today, the road will also be closed in that sector completely on Friday during those same hours.

The ministry said that the full closure is necessary due to the hazardous work conditions of the route often characterized by poor visibility due to rain, fog and the topography of the land. The marking work will continue on to other sections of the road next week.

Mauricio Sojo, of the Consejo Nacional de Vialidad, did mention that the closure and work would only be done if the weather permitted it. If the conditions are poor then the road will remain or would open immediately, the ministry said.

Drivers should consider alternative routes of travel during those hours. Public works suggested common cars and lightweight trucks use Vara Blanca as the alternate route or Ruta Nacional 10 heading towards Turrialba for all other types of vehicles.


Don't believe the hype, officials say

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

A Wednesday morning announcement from the national emergency committee could be boiled down to a few words: don’t believe the hype.

The technical advisory committee of volcanology and seismology and the Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias were apparently responding to unnamed reports that the Arenal volcano showed an increase in seismic and volcanic activity.

“[We] make a vehement call to the population and media, so that prior to the disclosure of information on alleged changes or trends regarding the evolution of seismic and volcanic activity in Costa Rica, should be obtained from official sources related to these issues,” the emergency commission said.

Those official sources include: Red Sismológica Nacional and the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica. The group explained that the instruments being used to measure these activities are highly sensitive pieces of equipment. They not only record tectonic or volcanic earthquakes but also any heavy rain, lightning, mudslides, avalanches or even nearby objects making noise.

The graphs recorded by instruments of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, after the commission consulted their experts and tools, were attributed to the heavy rains the area was experiencing in the past few days.

To further assuage people that the volcano was not experiencing any increase in activity, the government sent special technicians to the volcano and found no extraordinary evidence that there was any unusual activity in the past week to give cause for alarm.

“Therefore, the CAT de Vulcanología y Sismología considers it a right and duty to inform, as long as it is carried out with responsibility and without alarm to the population before any circumstance that could compromise the security of a region in condition of seismic and volcanic threats,” the group concludes in a statement.


Manuel Antonio gets treatment facility

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio in Quepos has a new sewage treatment system that allows it to continue receiving tourists.

Last February, the Ministerio the Salud issued a sanitary order for the park authorities to better deal with its wastewater in the following three months or else, it would be shut down and closed completely to the public.

However, the construction of a new plant was made possible thanks to a $13,000 investment made in partnership by the environmental ministry and the Asociación Costa Rica Por Siempre, a non-profit organization focused on the preservation of ecosystems.

The installed system features a high performance water purification techniques that do not require expensive filters. It also uses biodegradable materials instead of synthetic ones. This is known as a Bionest.

It allows further expansion in case of greater demand in the future. It was built underground in order to protect the parks scenery and the landscape.

Now, Manuel Antonio needs to make its facilities more friendly for people with reduced mobility and other disabilities, another request made in February by the Ministerio de Salud.

In 2015, the national preserve received 418,041 tourists. That number surpassed the other popular destination of the Volcán Poás, which was visited by 370,176 people, according to data from the National Tourism Board. It was listed among the 12 most beautiful natural parks in the world by Forbes magazine in 2011.


PCD arrest
Ministerio de Seguridad Pública photo          
Policía Control de Drogas officer makes arrest.

29,000 detained on drug offenses so far

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

We are halfway through the year and, between January and May so far, there have been over 29,000 people already apprehended for drug violations, according to data from the public security ministry.

The Ministerio de Seguridad Pública issued a statement detailing that all these people were surprised by the police and detained on the transfer, sale, possession or trafficking of drugs.

In addition to the persons, more than 10 tons of drugs have been seized during police operations. The majority of the seizures, at 739 kilograms, were cocaine and the other 379 kilograms were marijuana, police said.

Then there are also the cars and firearms as well as money confiscated during these actions. That includes about $3.3 million and around 65 million in colons, police said.

The law being violated is the Ley de Psicotrópicos and it can also include, aside from the drug offenses, the legitimation of capital or financing of terrorism as well, the ministry explained.


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A.M.
Costa Rica

Third News Page
U.S. Tax
Published || Thursday Edition, June 1, 2017 || Vol. 17, No. 108
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Pharmacy staffer's act of kindness earns a suspension from the Caja
By Rommel Téllez of the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Legislators, leaders of indigenous associations and general public paid a small tribute to Alexander Montenegro Tuesday night at the legislative assembly. It was not a big event and passersby could have asked themselves who that person was and why he was being cheered on like some hero.

The reason why goes back to Jan. 4, 2017, in Alto Quetzal, an indigenous community located in the Turrialba canton, which is part of Cartago province. It also goes back to a day in the life of Claudio Jiménez, an indigenous man who belongs to the Cábecar tribe.

That day, he was returning home after buying a chicken to feed his family. To get to his community he is forced to cross the Chirripó river by pushing himself on a tram attached to a zip line. He did this as usual but this particular instance found his finger snared with the zip line and the grip.

The wound was so bad that he almost had his finger cut clean off at the first phalange. Scared and bleeding he headed to the closest clinic, which if walking takes at least three hours. By the time he arrived to the Alto Quetzal clinic, it was 6:30 p.m and the only doctor available refused to check him out on the grounds that she had finished her shift two hours before.

She told him to return the next day or to call 9-1-1.“She then closed the door and hid,” Jiménez said.

The Alto Quetzal medical staff actually sleeps on-site. They start their shift Mondays at 5:30 a.m and go home Fridays at noon.

He then felt like fainting and sat on a small sidewalk next to the clinic. That's where Montenegro showed up and helped him out as much as he could. Being a technician in with the attached pharmacy, he provided the wounded man with painkillers and food.

He then walked away to find a better cell phone and call an ambulance, despite the doctor instructing him not to do so.

“It is my personal phone and I call who I want to,” Montenegro fired back at the doctor angrily.

When he returned, he saw Jiménez with a bloody bandage someone had put on him and looking pale.

“This man had been walking for hours while bleeding. It was really urgent to get him an ambulance, which would take several hours to arrive at the place and then some more hours on the way to hospital,” he said.

Finally, Jiménez was taken to Hospital William Allen, where he stayed for four days.

But that's not the why Montenegro has been praised.

Bothered with the whole situation, Montenegro decided to make the case public and got in touch with Mario Redondo, a legislator for the Alianza Democráta Cristiana party.

“I approached him because he is the legislator representing Cartago and he's been involved in indigenous issues for some time,” explained Montenegro.

The legislator took the case to session, making the case broadly known in the Spanish language media.

At the same time he talked to the lawmaker, Montenegro filed an official complaint before the authorities of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social and a formal investigation kicked off, probably under the pressure of public opinion and media attention garnered.

Several weeks later, and with the testimonies of Jiménez and another witness, the Caja authorities finished their investigation and found the doctor guilty of not abiding by the institution’s guiding principles.

According to a press release issued by Redondo's office, the investigation found that “not only formal and technically incomplete attention was provided, but also the behavior of the doctor was contrary to the precepts that guarantee an integral, universal, and egalitarian care.”

Her sentence was a two-day suspension without pay. Unexpectedly, the same authorities applied the same punishment to Montenegro, on the grounds that he should have first taken the case to the Caja authorities and not making it public.
Claudio Jimenez
Mario Redondo courtesy photo
Claudio Jiménez displays his grisly wound.

“Caja lawyers said I had been disloyal to the institution and I should have first talked to them rather than filing the complaint with the legislator,” Montenegro said.

“I explained to them that the incident took place on Wednesday night and I had Thursday off. So the first person I saw was the Redondo. At 7 a.m. Friday, I was also filing the complaint before the authorities,” he added.

According to him, one of his bosses told him he should have called at least. “I didn't have his number so he said I should have found it, something impossible up there on a Wednesday night,” he said.

Through the press office, A.M Costa Rica tried to contact Armando Villalobos, director of the south central region headquarter of La Caja to know what are the legal grounds on which Montenegro was punished. However, no contact information was provided prior to publication.

Alexander
Montenegro
Mario Redondo courtesy photo
Montenegro, right, receives recognition from Redondo.

"This is a way to silence the good officials, to tell you to be quiet because we will punish you if you don't behave in the way we want you to,” Redondo said in a statement.

“At least I believe this resolution also sends the message that, not only the indigenous people, but all the users of the Caja deserve respect and good treatment.”

As of now, the accused doctor has filed an appeal to the sentence, and so did Montenegro, however he plans to let the whole situation go and accept his punishment. That's why some call him a hero albeit a silent one.

“I've had almost zero support from my colleagues but a lot of support from people with whom I never expected would show it,” Montenegro said. “Even public officials have congratulated me and that feels good.”

“However, I've been in fear of being fired and I just want to stop all the stress me and my family have gone through.” he explained.

As of today, Montenegro has been transferred to another medical team where he feels his colleagues do not trust him much. “I think they truly believe I've been disloyal. They think of me as a snitch,” he said.


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A.M. Costa Rica's Fourth News page

Published || Thursday Edition, June 1, 2017 || Vol. 17, No. 108
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Bananas highly susceptible to devastating fungi, scientists say
By the Science Daily press staff

Bananas are one of the most important staple crops of the tropics, transported with great care over great distances to satisfy the world's appetite.

And today, with more than half the world's bananas coming from a single, Cavendish variety, they may increasingly become susceptible to fungi that threaten its livelihood, such as the devastating Panama disease.

That's why scientists have been eager to understand the mysteries of its genome. Cavendish fruits have no seeds, do not sexually reproduce and therefore are genetically identical, and are triploid meaning they have three sets of chromosomes, which made its genome very difficult to sequence.

The origins of Cavendish bananas come from several Musa acuminata subspecies that diverged after being geographically isolated in distinct Southeast Asian regions and islands. As with other domesticated crops, it is thought that human migrations helped lead to the emergence of subspecies and hybrids with reduced fertility but prized for their delectable fruits with high flesh and low seed content.

It is widely believed that Portuguese sailors first brought bananas to the Americas back in the 16th century. The crop represents a prominent agricultural export for Central America and Costa Rica. Many of the bananas produced in the region are of this same Cavendish strain.

Angélique D’Hont’s group at the CIRAD French research institute and the French National Sequencing Center completed a reference genome of M. acuminata in 2012.

Now, with next-generation sequencing tools available, they wanted to more finely explore the banana genome with an ultimate goal of helping breeding programs produce hardier, more disease-resistant bananas.

Using a variety of sequencing and bioinformatics tools, chromosomal imaging and PCR technology, for the first time, they have identified a large chromosomal swap involving two regions on chromosomes 1 and 4, and showed that it prevents the proper reshuffling of its DNA in its progeny.
When they traced the inheritance of these structures they found that the rearranged chromosome swap was preferentially transmitted to the progeny.
Cavendish bananas
Wikipedia photo   
Cavendish bananas are often what's found in the store.

The significance of their findings is important for agriculture.

The structure was found in half of the triploid cultivar sub-groups tested, highlighting a substantial contribution of this new chromosome structure in banana crops.

"It is noteworthy that this structure was found in the Cavendish sub-group of dessert bananas, which represents more than half of global banana production," said Ms. D'Hont.

"This must have been an important factor in reducing fertility and in the formation of triploid cultivars, and thus, in banana domestication. Indeed, triploidy is the most efficient ploidy level for the agronomic performance in banana."

"These characteristics have generated more vigorous plants, larger fruits and higher sterility, resulting in a complete absence of seeds in the fruits," she added.

The new findings could be used in breeding programs for banana crops to fight the dreaded Panama disease.

"This knowledge could be exploited to either foster recombination or fix allele combinations in the rearranged regions by choosing adequate parental combinations," said Ms. D'Hont.

"We expect to find more of these variations in the future, which will help steer recombination among the genes that control banana traits."



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9214-8/2/17


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Salsa Lizano
Published || Thursday Edition, June 1, 2017 || Vol. 17, No. 108
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Protest outside OAS HQ
Voice of America photo      
Protestors picket outside OAS headquarters.

OAS holds special meeting
on situation in Venezuela

By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Venezuela’s political, economic and social breakdown is getting a hard look from the international community on Wednesday, with the Organization of American States considering solutions at a special meeting in Washington and the European Parliament doing the same, hours earlier, in Brussels.

Both groups are trying to help restore peace and stability in the South American country, reeling from two months of often-violent protest against left-leaning President Nicolás Maduro.

At least 60 people have died in clashes between protesters and Maduro supporters and security forces.

The OAS meeting, scheduled to begin in mid-afternoon, brings together high-level representatives, including at least 18 foreign ministers, from throughout the Western Hemisphere. Venezuela likely will be alone among the 34 member states to go unrepresented.

In April, Maduro’s administration announced the country would withdraw from the OAS, accusing its chief, Luis Almagro, of joining in a U.S.-led a campaign to undermine Venezuelan sovereignty.

But Venezuela could send a surprise representative to defend its position before foreign ministers and to block any conclusive action against Maduro. He has called for revising the country’s constitution, beginning with a constitutional assembly in July. His critics fear a redrawn document could interfere with long-overdue elections and other efforts to restore democratic norms.

In Brussels, European Parliament President Antonio Tajani denounced Maduro’s plan for a new constitution. It’s a new coup with the sole purpose of consolidating this authoritarian regime, he said.

Tajani also characterized Venezuela’s planned withdrawal from OAS as an act of regional isolation that is harmful for the country.

He challenged the parliament to help find a peaceful solution to this crisis and said he would ask its leaders to consider imposing sanctions against select Venezuelan officials, as the United States has done.

Julio Borges, president of Venezuela’s opposition-led national assembly, joined Tajani. Borges said Venezuelans sought the opportunity granted by their own constitution to have free general elections.

In Washington, the Organization of American States so far has received two draft resolutions for discussion Wednesday.

One, submitted by the United States, México, Panamá, Perú and Canada, asks the OAS to discourage the Maduro administration from convening the constituent assembly as currently devised. Critics contend the proposed assembly of at least 540 citizens, some locally elected, some selected from interest groups such as farmers, students and laborers, would not fairly represent Venezuela’s 31 million people and would be stacked in favor of the ruling Socialist Party.

That draft resolution lists other reforms, including urging the suspension of Venezuelan military courts’ prosecution of civilians.

Maduro called for the revision, saying it was needed to bring peace and to prevent his rivals from staging a coup.

A senior U.S. State Department official, speaking Tuesday in a news teleconference, said that Washington supported a unified regional approach to help Venezuela find a peaceful, democratic and comprehensive solution to its current problems.

The official called for OAS member states to act collectively to ensure that the nations of our hemisphere support democracy, human rights and the rule of law.

He urged good-faith negotiations among all Venezuelans, adding that the main responsibility for showing good faith in any negotiations now is on President Maduro and the government of Venezuela.

He and another senior official on the phone call mentioned that the OAS was considering a contact group to facilitate negotiations with Venezuela. Its size and composition were up for discussion.

Once Latin America’s wealthiest nation, the oil-rich country’s fortunes plummeted with a 2014 downturn in global crude prices and with government mismanagement. It’s plagued by widespread shortages of food, medicine and other basic goods.

Anti-government protesters have taken to the streets almost daily since early April, demanding elections, the release of political prisoners and access to humanitarian aid.

In Caracas, youth leader Daniel Martínez Yabrudi said the OAS and others’ increased focus on Venezuela heartened him after years of increasing strain on its people.

"Little by little," Martínez Yabrudi said, “the countries of the OAS, the countries of the world have realized that they cannot be accomplices" to repression.

"We directly ask our sister nations to be our voice at this moment," he said, "... because what happens in Venezuela affects the region."


Angkor Wat gets first place
for tourist destinations list


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

Angkor Wat has triumphed across the centuries to emerge at the world's top tourism landmark in TripAdvisor's Traveler's Choice awards for the second time since 2015.

The travel website used an algorithm to determine the winners, which were determined by taking into account the quantity and quality of reviews and rankings for landmarks worldwide gathered over a 12-month period.

Angkor Wat scored 33,000 5-star reviews with comments that included “must see,” “magnificent” and “WOW!” along with admonitions to bring comfortable shoes and bottled water to explore the 250 square kilometers of Angkor Archaeological Park, which includes Angkor Wat and hundreds of other temples.

“This is the Khmer nation's pride, because Angkor is not only part of the prosperous heritage of Cambodia, but it has also become the heart and soul of the nation,” according to Long Kosal, a spokesman for the government's Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap.

Built between the years 802 and 1431, the city of Angkor was the center of the Khmer empire in what is now Cambodia, until it was toppled by internal power struggles, foreign invasion and climate change.

A complex of temples, basins, dikes, reservoirs and canals, the site is a unique concentration of features testifying to an exceptional civilization, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, or UNESCO.

Angkor was, according to World Archaeology, the most extensive urban complex in the pre-industrial world.

Angkor topped the 2015 TripAdvisor landmarks list, and last year Lonely Planet, another travel site, gave the temples of Angkor the top spot.

Ang Kim Eang, founder of the Great Angkor Tour Company, said the most recent award, which was made on May 23, would bolster tourism as more people become aware of the temples. But he cautioned that it was important to educate tourists about how to behave while visiting the sacred site, as visitor numbers continue to rise.

To prevent damage to the complex, there is a code of conduct with video on its site.

Lisa Delpy Neirotti, a George Washington University professor who is director of the masters of tourism administration program, on Wednesday said the way to preserve a cultural heritage site is that you put caps on admission. “I did see that they doubled the admission prices in 2016, which is one way to control capacity.”

For foreign tourists, the price of a one-day pass increased from $20 to $37, a three-day ticket from $40 to $62 and a seven-day pass from $60 to $72. Cambodians enter without charge.

In 1993, when Agkor Wat was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List, there were 7,650 recorded visitors. Last year, 2.2 million tourists visited the temple complex, Kosal said, bringing in more than $62 million to government coffers. So far this year, about 950,000 tourists have visited Angkor Wat. In April, 63,541 Chinese tourists visited the complex, far in excess of the 17,217 South Koreans and 12,660 visitors from the United Kingdom, according to government statistics.

Until November 2015, the complex was leased to a company owned by Sok Kong, a petroleum magnate close to the ruling Cambodian People's Party. Since then, it has been under government control.

The 2017 TripAdvisor awards honored 706 landmarks in 82 countries, with the Sheikh Zayed mosque in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, the Mezquita Cathedral de Cordoba in Cordoba, Spain, St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican, and the Taj Mahal in India occupying the next four positions. The 80-year-old Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco holds 11th place worldwide and is the top-rated U.S. landmark.


White House truncates
latest press conference


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

The White House spokesman, during a truncated, off-camera briefing Wednesday, brushed aside a question about a report that fired FBI Director James Comey plans to testify publicly that President Donald Trump pressured him to end an investigation into a top Trump aide's ties to Russia.

"We are focused on the president's agenda," White House press secretary Sean Spicer answered. "Going forward, all questions on these matters will be referred to outside counsel Marc Kasowitz."

The New York City litigator was retained by Trump last week to represent the president in all matters concerning the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.

Deferring all questions on an investigative matter is not unprecedented. During the presidency of Bill Clinton, spokesman Mike McCurry eventually did not answer questions about campaign finance investigations and other legal issues. Special counsel Lanny Davis handled those.

For Trump and Spicer in the age of digital and social media, this is not an issue that can be avoided by having your lawyer do the talking, Mark Hass, Arizona State University Professor of Practice in Strategic Communications, said.

CNN on Wednesday reported that Comey will tell the Senate Intelligence Committee, as soon as next week, that Trump urged him to drop his ongoing investigation into Michael Flynn, whom the president fired as his national security adviser.

Earlier in the day, the president on Twitter used the term "Witch Hunt" to characterize congressional investigations into his 2016 campaign's links to Russia, blaming opposition Democrats for allegedly blocking the testimony of another former aide, Carter Page, looking to clear his name.

During the daily White House briefing, Spicer also was asked about mysterious Wednesday morning tweets on the president's @realDonaldTrump account referring to "covfefe."

Shortly after midnight, Trump tweeted, "Despite the constant negative press covfefe"

The tweet, with the mystery word not found in any dictionary, stayed online for six hours before being deleted. Then, just after 6 a.m., the president tweeted: "Who can figure out the true meaning of covfefe? Enjoy!"

That one stayed up, unleashing another round of social media confusion. Asked about the cryptic message, Spicer replied, "The president and a small group of people know exactly what he meant."

Pressed for clarification, the press secretary did not respond, much to the chagrin of a befuddled press corps.

Cameras were not permitted to record Spicer's comments, as the White House apparently moves to reduce the number of contentious televised briefings.

The administration alternatively used the terms gaggle and pen and pad session for Wednesday's briefing, saying audio could be recorded but could not be aired live or streamed.

In past decades, extended on-camera White House press briefings were a rarity.

Despite the ground rule imposed Wednesday, the 11-minute briefing was aired live by some cable networks, in which one-fourth of the session was consumed by Spicer reading prepared announcements.

As the press secretary abruptly walked off the podium, one frustrated reporter exclaimed, "How short are these going to be?"


Trump nears decision
on Paris Climate Accord


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

President Donald Trump says he will announce Thursday afternoon his decision on whether to pull the United States out of the landmark 2015 Paris Climate Accord.

On his Twitter feed Wednesday night, Trump said he will make the announcement during a Rose Garden event at 3 p.m. Thursday. He ended the tweet with his campaign slogan, "Make America great again."

Earlier in the day, at a photo session with visiting Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc, Trump said he was hearing from a lot of people both ways as he considered his options.

Spokesman Sean Spicer said those consulted include U.S. business leaders and foreign heads of states.

Multiple news agencies reported Wednesday that the president already has decided to withdraw from the global pact, which has been endorsed by 195 countries. Such a move would be a major reversal of Obama era policy, pleasing his Republican base but infuriating environmentalists and America’s allies.

Trump quashed those reports, however, with a Twitter post saying the decision has not yet been finalized. Further confusing the issue, the Associated Press quoted a White House official as saying, caveats in the language' that Trump would use to announce a possible withdrawal would leave open the possibility that it is not final.

News of the pending decision was greeted with howls of derision in the environmental community, and the mayors of the largest U.S. cities vowed to remain faithful to the accord, regardless of what Trump decides.

Climate change activists were predictably furious, assuming that the decision would go against their interests.

The pending decision also prompted worried reactions from European and other allies.

The United Nations' official Twitter account carried this message: “Climate change is undeniable. Climate action is unstoppable. Climate solutions provide opportunities that are unmatchable.”

France’s ambassador to the United States, Gerard Araud, tweeted, “Major U.S. corporations have expressed their support of the Paris accord.”

European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker says President Donald Trump doesn't comprehensively understand the terms of the Paris accord. Juncker says European leaders tried to explain the process for withdrawing from the global agreement to Trump in clear, simple sentences during meetings last week.

Juncker, who was among the leaders Trump met with last week, notes that it takes several years to pull out of new international treaties. He says "This notion, `I am Trump, I am American, America first and I am getting out,' that is not going to happen.''

Not all reaction has been negative, though.

A group of 22 Republican senators issued a letter last week, urging Trump to make a clean break from the Paris agreement. The letter argued that remaining in it would subject the United States to significant litigation risk that could complicate Trump’s effort to overturn Obama era regulations, known as the Clean Power Plan.

Brett Schaefer of the pro-Trump Heritage Foundation said the decision to pull out of the Paris Accord should be an easy one for Trump, who was elected after calling climate change a hoax.

Al-Shabab commander
defects to Somali forces


By the A.M. Costa Rica wire services

An al-Shabab military commander has defected and surrendered to Somali government forces, authorities in Mogadishu said.

Minister of Information Abdirahman Omar Osman confirmed on Twitter that Bishar Mumin Farah had surrendered Wednesday in the south-central part of the country, in Hiran region.

A Somali general who interviewed the defector said the al-Shabab commander had been sent to Hiran, a large and populous area of central Somalia, in order to execute attacks during the holy month of Ramadan.

Gen. Mohamed Ahmed Tredice said Farah left his camp around 1 a.m. Wednesday and surrendered to government troops at sunrise. He also handed over two AK-47 automatic rifles and ammunition.

Before deciding to defect, Farah had been in contact with some of his relatives who are members of the government forces. They were among the troops that received him Wednesday.

Farah is the first high-profile member of al-Shabab known to have defected since early April, when President Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo offered a two-month amnesty to members of the extremist group. Several foot soldiers, rank-and-file members of al-Shabab, had turned themselves in previously.

Before coming to Hiran region, security sources said the defector had been al-Shabab's deputy commander of militias in Harardhere, the biggest town controlled by the militant group in Mudug region, in north-central Somalia.

Tredice said Farah also had been a deputy commander of al-Shabab units in three other parts of the country such as in Hiran, the Middle Shabelle and Galgudud regions.

Estimates of Hiran's population range up to and above 1 million, but like much of the demographic data available for Somalia, are highly uncertain. The government's Population Estimation Survey in 2015 listed Hiran's total population at above 500,000, with the majority of the region's people either nomads or rural dwellers.

The commander of the Somali army's 52nd Battalion said Farah's surrender clearly would be a setback for the militants.


More news of the Americas
From the Voice of America

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9220-8/15/17


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A little piece of paradise near Santiago de Puriscal,
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16 acres (approximately).  Price: $425,000 USD

We are selling our beautiful finca that has been in the family for 37 years. It is located 3 miles (5 km.) northwest of Santiago de Puriscal in the village of Desamparaditos. We are looking for a discriminating buyer who would appreciate the location, views, flora and fauna. Excellent for artists, writers and nature lovers. Fantastic birding. Very private but not isolated. Have surveyed plans for possible subdividing.

For more information:  In the U.S.A. call the owners: Pete & Debbie Todd: 970 -221-1457 or 970-581-4826 or email toddscolorado@gmail.com. In Costa Rica call Liz Guegan at 506-7187-8577.
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Puriscal home
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This is a gorgeous, new, 3-bedroom luxury home on 2.2 flat acres in a secure, gated community, high in the hills of Puriscal, with stunning, 180-degree views of the ocean, city and mountains of the Central Valley in Costa Rica. Centrally located in the heart of Costa Rica, you are never more than an hour from the Pacific beaches while being much less than that to the culture, shopping, services and night life of the San José, Escazú, Santa Ana and the whole Central Valley. The Altos de Antigua gated community sits at an altitude of 2,800 feet with mild temperatures year round. Features wide paved roads and cement culverts throughout, a large community pool & spa with changing rooms & showers. The community association fees are $42 a month ($500 annually).
This property is currently being offered for $355,000.00 U.S.
Purchase adjoining 2.2 acre investment lot with the home sale for $35,000.00 U.S. or separately for $55,000.00 U.S.
 
    Summary of House Features:

       * Completed 2012 to North American standards
       * 3 large bedrooms, 2 full baths
       * Custom designed kitchen w/granite countertops
       * Frigidaire Professional appliance package
       * State-of-the-art solar hot water
       * Eco-friendly Toshiba LED lighting
       * LG Multi-Split air conditioning system
       * House & perimeter security alarm system
       * 2-car closed garage w/large paved driveway
 
Video Tour: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUEAmahIU9A
Community Web Site: http://www.altigua.com
Photos: HERE!
Costa Rica # 506-8985-6705 or from the States call # 561-740-0651 or email gary_one@msn.com
9173-9/1/17

colinasdelsol
COLINAS DEL SOL Fenced Gated Lots for Sale

* Colinas del Sol is a fenced and gated project  in a quiet area.
* There are 88 clear titled lots.
* Mountain areas with great views.
* Gently sloping level areas ideal for hobby farms, gardening, fruit trees.
* Quiet place to get away from the busy city and beach crowds.
* All lots have gravel roads to them, water and electricity at each.
* Lots are 5,000 sq. meters or larger, starting at only $40,000 USD
* Located in Libertad, Guanacaste, northwest Pacific area of Costa Rica.
* 20 minutes to the Liberia International Airport
* 15 minutes to the Pacific Beaches
* 10 minutes to Medical Facilities
* 25 minutes to the Liberia Hospital
* 5 minutes to Vista Ridge Golf Club

Contact:
In Costa Rica, Jeffrey Sandi Murray:  jsandimurray@colinasdelsolcr.com
In the USA and Canada contact Jim Day: jimday50@aol.com or call 517-484-3675

For more information Click Here: www.colinasdelsolcr.com
9056-2/28/17

Etlinger Farm
rollover
Beautiful farm in excellent location
At only an hour's drive from San José, minutes from Guápiles, and boardering Braulio Carrillo National Park, Etlingera Farms is one heck of an amazing farm. We purchased this 77-acre farm 10 years ago after many trips, and an exhaustive search. It has a little bit of everything we were looking for and a whole lot of beauty. Our average elevation of 600 meters helps to keep Bella Vista cool year round. This farm is nearly level with a semi-modern 2-bedroom house. A fairly rustic 2-bedroom caretaker's home. And, a comfortable, 1-bedroom cabin where we stay. We have 2 large barns, a chicken coop, and a 3-stall pig pen. There are two tilapia ponds and 2 hectarias, (approximately 5 acres) of different species of bananas. The property boarders Rio Blanco in the rear and has 300 meters of public road frontage. Water, electricity, and telephone are all serviced by public utility. Etlingera Farms was reforested with several thousand wood trees of different tropical varieties. We truly believe this farm is spectacular. Our neighbors are selling for as much as $20 per meter. We are negotiable, motivated and open to offers. Our location can be found by searching Etlingera Farms on Google Maps. Our webpage is www.etlingerafarms.com and photo album can be found at www.ticorico.com
9196-4/25/17

horse ranch
rollover
Spectacular Horse Ranch and Spiritual/Yoga
Retreat Center For Sale

We invite you to a horseback tour of 187 acres of pristine farm land with breathtaking vistas, including the islands of the Gulf of Nicoya. There are multiple springs and streams, wooded areas, hard-wood and fruit trees, rolling hills with a geat variety of birds and wildlife. This property boasts the privilege of being bordered by thousands of acres of forest preserve down a steep canyon, offering its own spectacular views, which will never be developed. The many hills provide a builder an endless array of possibilities for nestling buildings in where they will have both views and privacy. The elevation of the property at 1,200 to1600 feet above sea level ensures fresh breezes and ideal year-round temperatures with a day-time average in the low 80's for open-air living. There is a ranch-style house with guest house with 8 total bedrooms, 5 modern baths, huge eat-in kitchen, landmark palm-thatched giant rancho, stable, and storage buildings. The home will come partially furnished, including beds, ample dishware for large groups, housewares, linens, washer/dryer, and fine hard-wood hand-built cabinetry. The remaining horses, 4 to 6 of them, will also convey if one wishes. We are also including a LARGE BEACH LOT in nearby Playa Bejuco. San Rafael de Nandayure is a tiny rural village nestled into the mountainside above Carmona with all the charms of the simple good life of a BLUE ZONE. Carmona is a thriving town with a clinic, restaurfants, shopping, and everything else one may need. The price of our listing Rancho Ricco is $799,000. More information
go to www.ranchforsalecostarica.com  Call Darin Ricco, phone +619-846-8249 or email:  darin_ricco@hotmail.com
9183-6/13/17

rollover
Owner Financing in San Ramon
New Construction, and Ocean View 
Brand new home with 4-plus bedrooms and 3 baths all overlooking an incredible 180-degree view of the Pacific Ocean and mountains. Located only 45 minutes from the San Jose airport and about the same to the Pacific Ocean.  The lower level could be used as a separate apartment or mother-in-law setup. Home includes HUGE master  suite, CLOSETS, custom cabinets, granite counter tops, high wood ceilings, and all in an area that is 70-80 degrees year round. Priced at $199,000. Completion date is January.  See the Virtual Tour CLICK HERE or see our site here  www.whynotcostarica.com. If you would like to take a look at this amazing house, please give me a call at  Costa Rica # 506-8755-6743 or if from the States call # 509-570-1928 or email tim@whynotcostarica.com 
9143-2/3/17

Penthouse
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Costa Rica penthouse for sale
 5 -story penthouse for sale.  One of a kind penthouse on top of the Corobici Hotel in Sabana overlooking the Central Park and new Soccer Stadium in San José.  Excellent location provides you easy access to everywhere.  Other benefits include 24-hour security, 2 restaurants inside the hotel providing 1st class room service plus shared common areas in the hotel. Commercial license is in place. Seller will consider owner financing.  Asking $795K U.S.  Also available for monthly rent for $3,400 per month on an annual basis. Go to www.ThePenthouseCostaRica.com  Owners U.S. cell phone: 813 310-7402  Email crstratton@ymail.com
9132-6/1/17

Business for sale or lease (paid category)

Live the dream!
Several profitable businesses, including a regional radio station, are for sale in Costa Rica. Certain purchases can provide the new owner with residency as well as a great lifestyle. So live your dream while making a profit. Contact: manager@crbusiness.biz.

Real estate brokers and agents (paid category)

CENTURY 21 JACÓ BEACH
Century 21

A Name You Trust,
Professionalism You Deserve

Tom Ghormley and the dream team!
Owner/Broker
in CR since 1979

Buying? Selling? Renting?
We Can Do It!
Let us help you live your dreams!
Beachfront, Views, Mountains,
Beaches, Houses, Condos,
Hotels, Restaurants, Projects,
Commercial, Investments and more

 Century 21 Jacó Beach Realty
Playa Jacó, Puntarenas, Costa Rica
U. S. A. phone numbers:  (213) 283-5168 
or Toll Free: (877) 746-3868
Costa Rica phone number: (506) 2643-3356
Email: info@c21jaco.com
Web: www.c21jaco.com
9215-3/22/18


Remax
Tamarindo
www.remax-oceansurf-cr.com The experts in buying property in Costa Rica, with more than 20 years experience and the largest networked team of agents in the country.  We can help you learn if investing in Costa Rica is right for you with our low-key, educational approach to sales. Our professional agents can tell you more about Costa Rica properties, including condos, homes, lots and & commercial real estate. Twelve (12) agents to serve you, from Playa Marbella to Playa Dante in the Guanacaste, through our Tamarindo and Flamingo offices. For more information, please contact our local phones: 506-2653-0073 Tamarindo / 506-2201-9056 Flamingo ~ Toll Free: 1-866-976-8898 or email:  info@remax-oceansurf-cr.com  or click here www.remax-oceansurf-cr.com
9145-1/2918


ReMax
Playas del Coco
We are an award-winning Team of Professional Agents working with Costa Rica’s #1 Selling Real Estate Agency RE/MAX Prestige Ocean Properties. Get to KNOW, LIKE & TRUST us and let us help you find YOUR Pura Vida! We have over 30 years of experience to educate our buyers and sellers in all aspects of Real Estate.  For Information on condos, homes, lots, farms, ranches, commercial or development property
CONTACT US TODAY with NO OBLIGATION whatsoever.

Playas del Coco Click Here!

Playa Panama Click Here!

Playa Hermosa Click Here!
Peninsula Papagayo Click Here!

Playa Matapalo Click Here!
Toll Free 1-877-293-1456
Email: michael@costarica-realestate.com

9174-2/7/18

Real estate-related services (paid category)

A-1 graphic
A1 MASTER BUILDERS COSTA RICA
SMALL and LARGER jobs welcome !!!. We can build from any plan you bring us all work done by USA codes master electric and plumbing Better quality and lower prices than USA. We do it all Right  + Reasonable.
Call us: Toll Free 877-778-8515   
     Text from US: 804-313-6382 
     CR phone: 506-8307-0164
     Email: hotelescazu@aol.com
     For more info also see our sites:
    www.a1masterbuildercostarica.webs.com
    www.hotelsescazu.com
    www.hotel4salecostarica.com
    www.wind-solar.webs.com 
9142-7/27/17
Related

Browse timeshares for sale and rent by owner in Costa Rica at bargain prices. We connect existing timeshare owners with those looking to buy or rent a timeshare on the resale market. Timeshares on the resale market are up to 50% cheaper than those sold through the resort. Already own a timeshare and looking to sell? Stop saying “sell my timeshare” and let BuyaTimeshare.com help you find a buyer or renter.
9203-4/19/2018

COSTA RICA SOLAR
solar one

solar two
NOW with the New Power Company Regulations, we're installing photo voltaic systems for solar electricity.
PV systems: we use Enphase micro-inverters. More flexible. Add panels whenever you like. More reliable than any other system and fully guaranteed!

Solar device
NOW is the time to install our new super-efficient solar hot water! New model for condos
Solar collector
BUY NOW! Your solar hot water system, so in three months, we can calculate a lower install price for your PV system.  Perfect for homes and hotels. Save up to 40% of your electric bill.
More Watts per Panel, Smarter and more Capable Enphase Micro Inverters mean Less Cost and more Flexibility for You.

    We aren't Cheap...Neither are our Products. Call to Compare.
    More Flexible, Reliable-and Fully Guaranteed!

    Push this BIG RED BUTTON:  (O) and Learn ​details about your deal with ICE     
    SEE our new PACKAGE DEALS.
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CALL TODAY!
Office: 506-2446-0543
Andre 506-8314-8090
Paul 506-8898-9398
OUR EMAIL:
 andrefurlong@gmail.com
Paul.Furlong@CR-Solar.com
VISIT OUR WEB:
www.crsolar.net 
9177-6/19/16



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Published || Thursday Edition, June 1, 2017 || Vol. 17, No. 108
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Rural tourism program tour
Tecnológico de Costa Rica photo      
Students participated in an active tour at the San Carlos campus.

Rural, sustainable tourism major promoted to high school students

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

This past Tuesday students from the Colgeio Universitario de Cartago and the Escuela Técnica Agrícola e Industrial participated in a starters course to learn managing techniques and practices in sustainable, rural tourism done by the local Tecnológico de Costa Rica in San Carlos.

The objective was to create a space for the students to learn more about the institute’s curriculum, facilities, scholarship offers and residences. The goal is to attract more students to enter the program and to gauge their interest as much as increasing the frequency of the activity every two months, organizers said.

Over the course of the day, over 23 students participated in the usual academic tours, talks and workshops that one can expect with a visit to a college. This one, however, brought more alumni engagement with graduates sharing their experiences and current positions in their career, the institute said.

This degree is a more rigorous one based on the requirements. Students entering the program would need to complete an additional two years to their training as well as the traditional four years of study. This allows the students to obtain their bachelor’s degree in Sustainable Tourism Management and acquire better experience to aid in the job search.

Some of those opportunities Tecnológico listed: field consultant, development manager and a professional in the realms of feasibility, evaluation, monitoring and planning of tourist activities but with an extra twist of including consciousness on the environmental and social impact of such activities.


Six charged with aggravated robbery

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

Six suspects arrested on charges of forming a criminal gang that stole vehicles could face pretrial detention while awaiting their day in court.

Prosecutors with the Ministerio Público will request the measures before the criminal court in Pavas, according to an official statement.

The defendants are also under investigation with at least 10 cases of aggravated robbery. The majority of the offenses appear to have occurred in Heredia or the north of San José, however two members of the group are also being investigated in relation to a robbery that occurred at least two weeks ago in Herredura, just north of Jacó.

The majority of the robbery cases appear to have been with the method of bajonazo, which involves threatening a person or persons in a stopped vehicle with a weapon and having them thrown out before stealing the ride.

Officials said that local prosecutors, at the time, requested preventive detention while the case was pending however the criminal court there imposed only precautionary measures such as not being allowed to enter the canton of Garabito as well as sign in with the court every 15 days and a promise to commit no further crimes. If the alleged offenses are true, then obviously the two defendants in question did not keep their promise to not commit any more crimes. At the time, the prosecution was appealing that move by the local court, the ministry said.

These two suspects and a third subject were also caught by police on suspicion of raiding a chicken seller in El Carmen de Guadelupe along with two other persons uninvolved in the aforementioned cases, officials said.



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From page 7:

UPS report shows import trends in Costa Rica

By the A.M. Costa Rica staff

UPS recently released the company’s latest export index focusing on small and medium-sized importers in Latin America such as those in Costa Rica.

The UPS Business Monitor Export Index Latin America sought to identify importer characteristics and assess purchasing behaviors of certain sectors within the importer economy of the Americas. To simplify the results, UPS chose four industries to focus on: industrial manufacturing, automotive, apparel and high-tech.

The sectors were then identified based on a cross section of four variables: high participation in U.S. trade, high participation in intra-regional Latin American trade, demand or use of express courier service and the estimated density of exporters. After 2,170 interviews, the findings relayed some industry as much as country-specific trends.

According to the report, 80 percent of apparel importers in Brazil and Costa Rica did not purchase their imported products online and that 74 percent of persons involved generally in the automotive sector did not purchase online either.

At the same time, Costa Rica was unique in the study’s findings as being one of a few continuously opting for finding new suppliers in nearly all the sectors sampled.

“In most of the countries surveyed, the responses were almost evenly divided 50:50, leaning slightly higher toward not searching for new suppliers in every case except Costa Rica, which was the only country out of the nine where the tables were turned with 56 percent seeking new suppliers,” the report said.

Moreover, the responses also indicated a wider regional trend that a supplier’s website has an impact on the assessment of a potential vendor with at least 60 percent of those sampled in Costa Rica agreeing with that finding.

E-commerce in apparel is equally on the rise, according to UPS, with smaller markets like Costa Rica leading the growth. When asked about the main operating barriers in importing, Costa Rican companies said overwhelmingly that delivery delays were the main problems with additional import costs and domestic logistics such as when a product clears customs also being tied for second place. The study did not label Aduana restrictions as being among the worst. It was underwhelming and average by comparison.

The study concludes by noting the opportunities available to exporters and suppliers within Costa Rica as it was one of two countries that consistently requested and were actively looking for new suppliers, UPS said.